Purchased from the
The Lewis H. Beck Foundation
MAY 2 6 194?
l,KO. DALLAS MOSGROVE.
" Warriors ! — and where are warriors found,
If not on martial Dixie's ground?"
The Reminiscences of a Confederate Cavalryman.
BY GEO- DALLAS MOSGROVE.
Much of the History of General Humphrey Marshall and his "Army " and of " Morgan and his Men;" Colonel
Henry L. Giltner and his Cavalry Brigade; A History of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry Regiment; Recollec-
tions of Generals John C. Breckinridge, Wm. Preston, " Cerro Gordo" Williams, S. B. Buckner,
Geo. B. Cosby, Geo. B. Crittenden and others ; General Longstreet in Tennessee, and General
Jubal A. Early ia the Shenandoah Valley ; Pen Portraits of Officers and Men ; Life in
Tent and Field ; Battles, Cavalry Raids, Songs, Incidents and Anecdotes ;
Characteristics of the Confederate Soldier ; Interesting Miscellany, etc.
COTTRIER-JOURNAI- JOB PRINTING Co.
I8 95 .
To the Confederate Soldier,
is Affectionately Inscribed
by the Author.
" The nien who held the heights at Gettysburg will live in history ;
yes — and the men who charged up the heights will live in history, too."
THE following pages represent the labor of years and
the affection of a lifetime.
Old soldiers, Confederate and Federal — they are all old —
are accustomed to salute the one the other, and exclaim :
" We are passing away ! " When all shall have answered the
last roll call, no sculptured marble may perpetuate the mem-
ory of their soldierly virtues, but their names shall be en-
shrined in the remembrance of their countrymen.
The stars and bars are entwined within the folds of the
star-spangled banner, and the bravest in time of war show
themselves the most orderly and generous when the doves
are nesting within the cannon's mouth.
I have written the following pages largely from memory,
and, although what I have written is authentic history, I do
not pretend to claim that this book contains a complete history
of any company, regiment, brigade or division of the Con-
The personages with whom I came in contact were so
many, the movements of troops so numerous and complex,
that it were impossible for me to remember all of them ; and
besides, no one soldier or officer of any command ever saw
everything, or had the same experience.
Being connected with the adjutant-general's office, and
performing staff duty, I was brought in close contact with
the rank and file of regiments, brigades and divisions, and
was enabled to see much of prominent officers and to acquire
information in regard to plans of campaigns, the movements
of troops and to witness innumerable interesting incidents ;
yet I was so young, only eighteen, that I naturally failed to
observe the panorama of war as closely and intelligently as I
probably would have done had I been past the age of
Many personages and incidents, however, impressed them-
selves indelibly upon my youthful mind, and I have been
constrained to write these reminiscences that the virtues and
valorous deeds of my comrades may not be lost in oblivion.
I am conscious, however, that my pen is lamentably deficient
in artistic and descriptive ability to do justice to the Con-
I have written this book also with the hope that to the
Confederate soldier who is not yet "sleeping in the valley"
may be recalled memories of the bivouac, his marches, his
battles and the innumerable scenes and incidents peculiar
to the days when he was " a soldier in gray."
It will not be long until " the last of the Confederates "
shall have passed to the "eternal camping ground," to " rest
under the shade of the trees." Even now, but few are left
to bury the dead; therefore, to the sons and daughters of
Confederate veterans should be left something more tangible
than tradition to remind them of the gallant deeds per-
formed by their fathers who followed the stars and bars and
starry cross " away down South in Dixie."
A native of Louisville, I was living in Hunters Bottom, on
the banks of L,a Belle Riviere, near Carrollton, Ky., when I
mounted a charger and rode to Dixieland to serve her cause
" for three years, or during the war." This was early in Sep-
tember, 1862, and, looking adown the long vista of years in-
tervening between the present and the far-away past, I see
the indistinct outlines of many pictures I fain would hang on
the " walls of memory's hall." Numbers of them, however,
are hanging there in bold relief, every feature clearly delin-
eated, the coloring fresh, every tint discernible. I have
striven to freshen up the faded pictures by brushing away
the accumulated dust and cobwebs of Time, and, in numer-
ous instances, have succeeded only by the aid and counsel of
a few intelligent comrades, who, believing in my work, have
given an impetus to my energies by their assistance and en-
To Captain Edward O. Guerrant, Adjutant-General, the
comrade whom I loved, I am indebted, more than to any other
person, for material aid in the preparation of this book.
The Hon. Charles J. Bower, Kansas City, Mo. ; General
Basil W Duke, Captain John J. McAfee, Captain Bart W
Jenkins, Captain R. O. Gathright and Comrade Neville Bul-
litt, of Louisville, Ky. ; Captain J. J. Schoolfield, of Iuka, 111. ;
H. P Willis, of Bracken County, Ky. ; Col. A. S. Berry,
Member of Congress Sixth Kentucky District ; D. Brainard
Bayless, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and others have been prompt
and generous in giving me valuable aid, timely suggestions
and encouragement. I herewith beg them to accept my
thanks and acknowledgments for the same.
Geo. Dallas Mosgrove.
Carrollton, Ky., December, 1S94.
In which the Author Becomes a Confederate Cavalryman— The March
from the Ohio River to Owenton — Organization — From Owenton
to Camp Buckner — General Bragg's Campaign— Battle of Perry-
ville — Retreat from Kentucky.
Organization of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry — The Muster Rolls.
General Humphrey Marshall — General William Preston.
Colonel Henry L. Giltner.
Adjutant-General Edward O. Guerrant — Captain Peyton Miller.
Lieutenant-Colonel Moses Tandy Pryor — Mrs. Barbara A. Pryor —
Officers in Prison on Johnson's Island.
Major Nathan Parker.
The Buttermilk Ranger.
East Tennessee Campaign-^Events of 1863 — Telford's — Limestone —
Capture of the One Hundreth Ohio Infantry Regiment.
East Tennessee Campaign, continued — Battle of Blue Springs.
East Tennessee Campaign, continued — Battle of Henderson's Mill.
East Tennessee Campaign, continued — Battle of Rheatown — Pugh's
Hill — Blountville — Zollicoffer — Abingdon — Review — Reorgani-
General Ransom— General William E. Jones — General John S. Will-
iams — General George B. Crittenden.
East Tennessee Campaign, continued — Battle of Big Creek.
A Literary Symposium.
Stampeding Wolford's Cavalry.
General Longstreet in Tennessee — The Siege of Knoxville — Assault
upon Fort Sanders — Minor Infantry and Cavalry Engagements.
Captain Bart W. Jenkins and His Troopers.
Dr. Sam S. Scott — Adjutant reeman — Sergeant-Major Harrison —
Captain Geo. T. Atkins — Captain Geo. T. Campbell — Captain War-
ren Montfort — Lieutenant-Colonel Clarence J. Prentice — Dr. Geo.
Lieutenant Archie W. Smith — Recruiting in Kentucky — General
Order No. 38 — Execution of Corbin and McGraw — Lieutenant-
Colonel George M. Jessee — General S. B. Buckner.
General John H. Morgan — His Escape from the Ohio Penitentiary.
General Morgan Defeats Averill — Major Parker Killed.
Morgan's Last Ride into Kentucky — Preparations for the Trip —
Organization— The March to Mt. Sterling— The First Battle There.
The Second Battle at Mt. Sterling.
Winchester — Lexington — Fort Clay — Buggies and Carriages for
Ambulances — Obtaining Horses — A Generous and Hospitable
Georgetown — Demonstration Toward Frankfort — The March to
The First Battle at Cynthiana — The Federal Commander Killed—
Defeat and Capture of the Enemy — The Burning of the Town.
The Second Battle at Cynthiana— A Desperate Combat— The Capture
of General Hobson — The Fatal Encampment on the Wrong Side
of Licking River.
The Third Battle at Cynthiana— The Confederates Defeated and Stam-
peded — Many Captured — Death in the Licking River — Narrow
Escape of General Morgan and a Remnant of His Command —
The Confederate Force, Cut in Twain, Retreats by two Routes —
The Prisoners Paroled — The Bummer — Results of the Raid.
General Morgan's March to Greenville, Tenn.
Morgan Betrayed — The Woman — General Gillem's March.
General Morgan Surprised — Confusion in the Camps — The General
Missing— Uncertainty Regarding His Fate — Retreat on the Jones-
boro Road — Captain McAfee, Under a Flag of Truce, Finds the
General's Dead Body in Greenville.
The Death of Morgan — The Garden Scene — Murder in the Vineyard
— Arrival of General Basil W Duke and Colonel Dick Morgan —
Burial of the Dead Chieftain at Abingdon — Some Reflections.
The Battle of Saltville.
The Battle of Saltville, continued— Death of Colonel Trimble— Defeat
of the Federals.
The Battle of Saltville, continued — Captain Jenkins in the Federal
Rear — Arrival of Generals Breckinridge and Echols— Duke's,
Cosby's and Vaughn's Brigades — Killing the Negroes.
The Battle of Saltville, continued — The Retreat and Pursuit — General
Basil W. Duke — Colonel Charles Hanson — Federal Depredations
— Escape of the Federals.
In the Shenandoah Valley — General Cosby — Natural Bridge — Lex-
ington — Washington College — Virginia Military Institute — Stone-
wall Jackson's Grave — General Early — General Lomax — Captain
McAfee — Rosser's Men.
In the Shenandoah Valley, continued — Luray Valley — General Imbo-
den — Lieutenant Crit Ireland — "Moonshine Stills" — Columbia
Bridge — Front Royal — Desolation and Graves.
In the Shenandoah Valley, continued — General Early Makes a Recon-
noissance in Force — The Infantry Exchanges Pleasantries with
the Cavalry — Lost on a Bleak Plateau — A Fragrant Breath and
Two Canteens — A Weird Scene.
Farewell to the Valley — General Early's Opinion of the Cavalry —
Good News from Rosser- — New Clothing — Famous Virginia
Springs — The Return March — Grave of Captain Cleburne— -Mrs.
John B. Floyd.
The '' Boys " Entertain Their Comrades with Stories of Valley Expe-
rience — Stoneman on a Raid — Burbridge After More Salt — Gen-
eral Duke is Captured, but Escapes — General Duke Defeated at
Kingsport, and Colonel Dick Morgan Captured — Captain Bart Jen-
kins Captured at Abingdon, but Kills Two Soldiers and Escapes'..
The Battle of Marion — Witcher and His Nighthawks — The Ken-
tuckians win Choice of Position — Incidents.
CHAPTER XL VI.
The Battle of Marion, continued — No Sunday in the Army — A Des-
perate Combat— Stoneman Repulsed — Duke and Witcher Demor-
alize the ''Smoked Yankees."
The Battle of Marion, continued — Enigmatical Strategetics — A Wide
Open Door for General Stoneman to Enter Saltville.
The Captains of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry.
Some of the " Boys."
The Last Days — The Homeward March — The Surrender to General
Hobson at Mt. Sterling.
Kentucky Cavaliers in Dixie.
In which the Author becomes a Confederate Cavalryman—
The march from the Ohio river to Owenton — Organiza-
tion — From Owenton to Camp Buckner — General Bragg's
Campaign— Battle of Perryville — Retreat from Ken-
" And there was tumult in the air,
The fife's shrill note, the drum's loud beat ;
And through the wide land everywhere,
The answering tread of hurrying feet."
SIMULTANEOUSLY, September 5, 1862, General Lee
invaded Maryland and General Bragg marched into
Kentucky. There were exciting times in the Northland and
in the Southland, and more especially in the border States.
In Kentucky thousands of young men were eager to enlist
under the starry cross of Dixie. The coming of Bragg
opened the way In advance of his army recruiting officers
appeared here and there throughout the State, none of whom
were more daring and successful than the noted trio, Giltner,
Pryor and Parker, who came into Kentucky with the inten-
tion of recruiting a regiment. They operated in the border
counties, along the Ohio River from Louisville to Cincinnati,
and in counties adjoining them not lying immediately on the
river. The result of the enterprise was the organization
known as the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry Regiment. The
recruits remained quietly at their homes until there was a
marshaling of clans for purposes of organization. They
were compelled to be very discreet in their preliminary
movements, as there was ever present the menacing danger
of being captured by the Federals upon information given
by unfriendly citizens.
Having secretly provided themselves with arms, horses
16 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
and other equipments, they quietly assembled at the desig-
nated rendezvous, and, without noteworthy adventure, con-
centrated at Owenton, Owen County, Ky., at which place four
companies were organized, H. L. Giltner, M. T. Pryor, W B.
Ray and J. T. Alexander being selected as captains. Sub-
sequently Captain John G- Scott, Captain R. O. Gathright
and Captain D. L,. Revill reported with parts of companies,
which were afterward filled, and Captain Thomas E- Moore
brought in another company. From Owenton the march
was resumed, the column being constantly augmented by
additional recruits. Passing through Stamping Ground, and
on to Paris, in Bourbon County, the " little army " went into
camp for a day or two at the fair grounds, and then moved
into a more permanent camp near by, in a beautiful wood-
land carpeted with luxuriant bluegrass, owned by the
wealthy and hospitable Buckner family, in honor of whom
the encampment was called " Camp Buckner." Being lib-
erally supplied by the generous and wealthy citizens with
well-cooked provisions, and visited by the fair ladies of that
most beautiful and hospitable of all lands, and in turn the
gay soldier boys being received as welcome guests in the ele-
gant manors, the halcyon days at Camp Buckner savored
little of the rough, hard life afterward experienced. The
march from the Ohio River to Camp Buckner had been a con-
tinuous ovation. All along the route men cheered and fair
women smiled and waved handkerchiefs. An exhilarating
scene was witnessed at the Oxford Female Academy, where
the young girls rushed out upon the green, wildly cheering
and waving encouragement. The most notable demonstra-
tions, however, were at Georgetown and Paris, where the
ladies thronged the sidewalks, doorways and windows, wav-
ing handkerchiefs and small Confederate flags. This so en-
thused the boys that, after giving the regulation " Confed-
erate yell," they began singing:
" Cheer, boys, cheer, we'll inarch away to battle ;
Cheer, boys, cheer, for our sweethearts and our wives."
Pleasant memories cluster about Camp Buckner and the
elysian fields and smiling skies of Bourbon — the generous
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 17
families of Buckner, Clay, Thomas and Bedford. But the
bugle calls, and all is changed. We mount our horses and
forthwith confront the rough, hard life of a Confederate cav-
alryman. There are to be no more Camp Buckners. From
new on it is marching, marching, marching, day and night,
along dusty turnpikes, suffering greatly for want of water,
and nearly always hungry and sleepy.
Until the close of General Bragg's campaign we were con-
stantly marching — moving to and fro on the chess-board of
Just before marching into Kentucky General Bragg had
been at Chattanooga, on the left flank of Buell's Federal
army. Early in August, with Morgan's cavalry in advance,
the Confederate army made a rapid movement up the
Sequatchie Valley into Kentucky Buell immediately started
for Louisville, and then there was an exciting race between
the two armies. To make it more interesting, General E-
Kirby Smith, of Manassas fame, leaving a considerable force
to watch the wily Federal general, George W Morgan, at
Cumberland Gap, with twelve thousand infantry and about a
thousand of Scott's celebrated cavalry, entered Kentucky
from Virginia and struck the army of General Wm. Nelson
at Richmond, and, in a pitched battle, defeated the Federals,
the defeat becoming a rout. Smith "swiftly marched upon
Lexington, effecting a junction with General John H. Mor-
gan, and advanced a division of his army to the vicinity of
Covington, threatening Cincinnati. Within a few days Bragg
also arrived at Lexington, thence moving to Frankfort, tak-
ing possession of that city and the country south and west
of it. At Frankfort, October 4th, in the presence of thirty
thousand Confederate soldiers and a vast assemblage of citi-
zens, Richard Hawes was inaugurated Governor of Kentucky
The new Governor had scarcely concluded his inaugural
address when the advanced cavalry of Buell's army charged
up to the Kentucky river bridge, and "Governor" Hawes
retired with General Bragg to Lexington.
Buell, having reached Louisville and reorganized his army,
marched upon Frankfort with one column, sending another
18 KENTUCKY CA VAL1ERS IN DIXIE.
down the south bank of Kentucky River, on Bragg's left
flank, threatening his rear.
Strangely, inexplicably, General Bragg divided his army,
and with the smaller part fought the larger part of Buell's
The battle of Perryville, fought October 8th, was most des-
perate and bloody — the bloodiest ever fought on Kentucky
soil. Neither general was aware of the real situation when
the battle began. General Bragg thought he was attacking
the smaller part of Buell's army, while Buell believed he was
confronted by the greater part of the Confederate force.
Just the reverse was true.
The battle was brief. It began at 2:30 o'clock and
closed at 6 p. m. Of twenty-five thousand men, the Fed-
erals lost, in killed and wounded, probably four thousand.
The Confederates lost, in killed and wounded, about three
thousand of the fifteen thousand men they had in the fight.
By nightfall, General Bragg realized that nearly the whole
of General Buell's army was confronting him, and concluded
to fall back toward Harrodsburg to meet General Kirby
Smith, who was marching toward him from Frankfort and
Lexington. Bragg then resolved to retreat from the State,
overruling the counsel of Generals Humphrey Marshall and
Smith, who declared that such a movement was not neces-
The Confederate Government was very much dissatisfied
with Rragg's management of the Kentucky campaign, and
placed him, temporarily, under arrest. In like manner, the
Federals severely criticised General Buell. The Fourth Ken-
tucky Cavalry, having been assigned to General Marshall's
command, assisted in covering the retreat, marching in rear
of the immense wagon train — said to be about thirty miles
Upon reaching Lancaster, due east from the Perryville
battlefield, General Marshall's column separated from Bragg's,
leaving the State by way of Pound Gap, while General Bragg
retreated into Tennessee by way of Cumberland Gap and
other passes through the mountains.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 19
Organization of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry— The Muster
" There many a 3'outhful knight, full keen
To gain his spurs, in arms was seen."
THE Fourth Kentucky Cavalry Regiment, nearly nine
hundred strong, was fully organized at Salyersville,
Ky., on the 5th day of October, 1862. Henry L. Giltner
was made Colonel ; M. T. Pryor, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Nathan
Parker, Major ; S. S. Scott, Surgeon ; Geo. T Campbell,
Captain-Commissary ; Geo. T. Atkins, Captain-Quarter-
master ; Terah M. Freeman, Adjutant, and R. Frank Harri-
son, Sergeant-Major. Charles Duncan, of Covington, Ky.,
had been adjutant, temporarily, and Captain Campbell was
eventually succeeded in the commissary department by
Captain Jacob Yeager.
The final organization of companies was as follows : Com-
pany A, Captain Wm. B. Ray ; Company B, Captain John G.
Scott; Company C, Captain J. T Alexander; Company D,
Captain Thomas E. Moore ; Company E, Captain Sam Dun-
can; Company F, Captain Thomas M. Barrett; Company G,
Captain Loss Revill, succeeded by Captain James T Willis ;
Company I, Captain John J Marshall ; Company K, Captain
Shuck Whittaker. When Major Parker was killed, Captain
Ray became Major, and Lieutenant Ben Duncan became Cap-
tain of Company A. When Captain Marshall was killed,
Lieutenant H. S. Chilton succeeded to the captaincy of Com-
pany I, and when Captain Sam Duncan was captured at
Rheatown, Tenn., Lieutenant H. H. Adcock succeeded to the
command of Company E, retaining it until the close of the
The companies were made up of men from the counties of
Harrison, Bourbon, Pendleton, Kenton, Campbell, Boone,
Grant, Gallatin, Owen, Henry, Carroll, Trimble and 01dham r !
Some were from Louisville, others from different parts of the
State, and not a few from other States.
20 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
The regiment was first brigaded under General Marshall ;
afterward under Generals Wm. Preston, John S. Williams
and others ; finally, under Colonel H. L, Giltner. The bri-
gade was a part of General John H. Morgan's division from
the time of that chieftain's escape from the Ohio prison until
he was killed. It then became an independent brigade, con-
tinuing as such until the close of the war.
The muster rolls of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry are
herewith appended :
FIELD AND STAFF.
H. L. Giltner, Colonel.
Moses T. Pryor, Lieutenant-Colonel.
Nathan Parker, Major.
Sam S. Scott, Surgeon.
George S. Whipple, Assistant Surgeon.
H. Gamble, Assistant Surgeon.
L. L. Gregory, Assistant Surgeon.
G. T. Campbell, Commissary.
Clint W Kelly, Commissary Sergeant:
Geo. T. Atkins, Quartermaster.
James Crews, Assistant Quartermaster.
Terah M. Freeman, Adjutant.
R. Frank Harrison, Sergeant-Major.
James O. Bersot, Quartermaster-Sergeant.
Jacob Yeager, Commissary Sergeant.
Wm. D. Ray, Captain. Nathan Barnes, Fourth Sergeant.
Ben F. Duncan, First Lieutenant. Geo. W Miller, Orderly Sergeant.
John H. Thomas, Second Lieut. Jacob Yeager, Quartermaster.
John R. Sanders, Second Lieut. John Law, First Corporal.
Fred Hutchison, First Sergeant. Columbus Shephard, Second Cor-
L. G. Peak, Orderly Sergeant. poral.
Silas N. Peak, Second Sergeant. John F Hall, Second Corporal.
Ben F. Gray, Second Sergeant. John R. Skidmore, Third Corporal.
Jesse F. Fallis, Third Sergeant. Robt. W Gatewood, Fourth Cor-
Geo. W. Abbott, Fourth Sergeant. poral.
Abbott, Wm. A. Burrows, Wm. F., transferred to
Abbott, W H. Colonel Hawkins.
Alexander, James. Burrows, A. W.
Arington, Lafe W., transferred to Belle, Lafe, transferred to Corn-
Company H. pany H.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Burton, W. B., transferred to Com-
Burrows, Thos. D.
Colbert, John L,., detailed as
butcher and commissary.
Colbert, Russell, detailed as
butcher and commissary.
Colbert, W. J., transferred to Com-
Coleman, Wm. Oscar.
Crafton, Babbitt, died.
Canady, Moses, died March 3, 1863.
Callis, Hampton, transferred to
Callis, Thos. A., transferred to
Callis, Camden B., transferred to
Callis, E. B., transferred to Com-
Duggins, Kendrick, transferred to
Davis, Flem, killed.
Ewing, Augustus M.
Edrington, Alex., died.
Edwards, Geo. W.
Ewing, G. D.
Fisher, J. E-, died.
Fallis, Flournoy C.
Farley, Wm., died.
Foree, John T.
Foree, Thos., transferred to Com-
Faulconer, Lev., transferred to
Foree, Geo., transferred to Com-
Tague, John T.
Ginn, James G.
Greenwood, Wm. L,.
Gatewood, W. R.
Goode, Wm. R.
Greenwood, Wm. H., transferred
to Colonel Hawkins.
Greenwood, John W., transferred
to Colonel Hawkins.
Gideon, John R.
Gideon, James W.
Glass, F. M., transferred to Com-
Glass, Conway, transferred to
Hunter, Henry, transferred to
Humphrey, Robt. E.
Hoskins, Armistead, died.
Hunt, J. C.
Harmon, 0. P., transferred to Com-
Hoskins, R. A., transferred to
Harmon, J. W., transferred to
Hoskins, A. G.
Jones, J. D.
Johnson, Joe, killed at Telford's
Depot, Tenn., Sept. 9, 1863.
Jackson, Sam P.
Lent, Geo., transferred to Com-
Maddox, Alonzo W.
Mitchell, W. C, transferred to
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Mayfield, C. G.
Martin, James, transferred to Com-
McGlochlen, Henry, transferred
to Company H.
Owen, James G-, promoted to Ord-
Perkinson, John D.
Pendleton, John R.
Peak, Geo. W
Pryor, Wm. M.
Penn, John W
Robinson, John L.
Romans, Sam L.
Rowlett, John \V.
Riddle, Win., transferred to Com-
Richmond, Andrew, transferred to
Richmond, J. W., transferred to
Stafford, D. F., died.
Stafford, H. W.
Smith, Albert R., killed at Lime-
stone, Tenn., Sept. 1S63.
Staples, Marion, transferred to
Staples, Sam'l A., transferred to
Smith, Robt. F
Sanders, Jas. G.
Trulove, H. H.
Trulove, W T.
Trulove, H. W
Trout, Dan'l B.
Tandy, John A.
Thompson, W D., died.
Turngate, J. X., transferred to
Turngate, D. W., transferred to
Tandy, John F
Tandy, Andrew J.
Vawter, Wm. H.
Welch, Geo. W., transferred to
John G. Scott, Captain.
Marion Corbin, First Lieutenant,
shot by Burnside, death order,
on Johnson s Island.
Robt. F. Alexander, First Lieu-
Pierce Whittaker, Second Lieu-
Parker Dean, Second Lieutenant,
killed at Cynthiana, Ky.
Alex. C. Ross, First Sergeant,
killed at Mt. Sterling, Ky.
Lewis Alexander, Second Ser-
Price N. Demint, Third Sergeant.
John D. Alexander, Fourth Ser-
Robert L. Bond, Fourth Sergeant.
Sam'l Ryan, Fifth Sergeant.
Robt. L. Sanders, First Corporal.
Daniel H. Morgan, Second Cor-
John E. Eglestou, Third Corporal.
James O. Bersot, Fourth Corporal.
Wood G Stansifer, Fourth Cor-
Dike Arnold, Bugler, died at Jones-
ville, Va., February 12, 1S63.
Joel K. Corbin, Blacksmith.
John W West, Farrier.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Alexander, Richard M.
Allcorn, Benj., transferred to Com-
Ayers, Jas. T., transferred to Fifth
Bowlin, Robt. O.
Bowlin, John, died at Gladeville,
Brown, Wm. M.
Cox, Richard L.
Craig, Edward T.
Demint, Wm., transferred from
Dinguid, James E.
Friend, R. S., captured in Ken-
Franklin, Robert, transferred to
Garnett, Wm. R.
Garnett, Andrew T.
Garnett, Wm. H., died in Virginia,
May 20, 1863.
Garnett W. B., wounded; died in
Virginia, June 22, 1863.
Knox, Joel T., died in Virginia,
April 30, 1863.
Knox, Newt. A.
Ivilla, John A.
Langley, Wm. F., transferred to
Lindsay, John F
Murphy, John F.
Means, Nimrod A.
McDaniel, John H., died at Camp
Henry, January 11, 1864.
McDaniel, Thos. D.
McCreary, Wm. H.
McElrath, Thos. J., captured at
Mt. Sterling, Ky.
Noel, John B.
Pettit, Julius J.
Pettit, James, died at Holston
Pettit, John E.
Rodgers, Alex. M.
Rudd, Jos. T.
Rigg, Harry B., wounded at Bean
Ross, Campbell, killed at Mt. Ster-
Roberts, Robt. L.
Ross, Wm. A.
Stansifer, Wood G.
Smith (or Schmidt) , John.
Souther, John M.
Summers, James W.
Smith, Allen, transferred to Com-
Stevenson, Wm. G.
Thomas, Harrison, transferred to
Utz, Thos. J.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Vaughan, Geo. B.
Williams, Joel N., captured in Ken-
Williams, Wm. B.
Wells, Geo. W.
West, John W.
White, Leroy, died
June 9, 1863.
Whittaker, John T.
J. T. Alexander, Captain.
E. D. Whittaker, First Lieutenant,
promoted to Captain, Com-
pany K., December 10, 1862.
E. J. Sanders, First Lieutenant,
promoted from Second Lieu-
W T. Bond, Second Lieutenant.
W. H. Hammond, Third Lieu-
J. P. Garvey, Third Lieutenant.
J. P. Van Pelt, Orderly Sergeant,
transferred to Company K.
Thos. Violett, Orderly Sergeant.
James P. McNeal, First Sergeant.
Isaac T. Webster, Second Ser-
Arnold, W. J., transferred to Com-
Allcorn, John, transferred to Com-
Ayres, John S., died April 1, 1863.
Arnold, W. C, transferred to Cap-
Brown, J. W.
Baucum, Allen, transferred to
Bond, R. S.
Baker, J. W.
Burk, Patrick, transferred to Com-
Baldwin, T. D.
Beaty, C. H.
Brock, W. J., died May 1, 1863.
T. D. Alexander, Third Sergeant,
transferred to Company K.
Peter Gentry, Fourth Sergeant.
Elijah Arnold, First Corporal.
J. W. Moore, First Corporal.
Patrick Gill, Second Corporal,
transferred to Company K.
T. J. Allnut, Second Corporal.
John Rohrer, Third Corporal.
T. W. Taylor, Third Corporal.
John Montgomery, Fourth Cor-
poral, transferred to Com-
G. W. Douglas, Fourth Corporal.
James Burk, Blacksmith.
W. M. Early, Farrier.
N. M. Sanders, Farrier.
Bryant, Granville, transferred to
Craigmyles, J. W., transferred to
Craigmyles, Van Buren, trans-
ferred to Company K.
Clements, G. A., transferred to
Childs, A. L., transferred to Com-
Calender, John, transferred to
Craigmyles, R. W.
Clements, Gustavus, transferred to
Cook, J. P., transferred to Com-
Craigmyles, Sylvanus, transferred
to Company K.
Childs, G. M., transferred to Com-
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
Coots, M. T.
Catlett, T. A., transferred to Com-
Callahan, Dennis, transferred to
Conover, John J., formerly of
Buckner Guards. Re-enlisted.
Darbrow, Wm., transferred to
Davis, G. W.
Douglas, G. W.
Duncan, Squire, transferred to
Douthit, James, transferred to
Dorman, J. H.
Early, W M.
Edwards, J. W.
Early, T. H.
Furnish, W H., transferred to
Gill, Michael, transferred to Com-
Garvey, Joseph, died at Blount-
ville, Tenn., December 6, 1862.
Garvey, B. E.
Green, J. L.
Green, G. W., died March 1, 1863.
Gill, Matthew, transferred to
Hartsough, J. C.
Hammond, J. A.
Hearen, \V. T.
Holliday, Geo. W.
Herrington, J. H.
Hopkins, T. H., wagoner.
Jones, Alonzo, transferred to Com-
Jones, L.> died April 20, 1863.
Kemper, G. G.
King, J. T., transferred to Com-
Kemper, J. P.
Llewellyn, John, transferred to
Lyons, James, transferred to Com-
Lewis, G. T., died at Crank s Gap,
Va., May 16, 1S63.
McDermott, Leander, transferred
to Company K.
McCreary, James K.
Minor, E. S.
May, G. W
May, Hezekiah, transferred to
McGaffic, Wm., transferred to
Nichols, Ed, transferred to Com-
Nuttall, Thomas, transferred to
Nuttall, \V. L-, transferred to Cap-
O'Donnel, Patrick, transferred to
Orr, Richard H., transferred to
Osborne, D. L.
Poland, J. J., transferred to Com-
Poland, Jesse, transferred to Com-
Poland, D. L., captured in Ken-
Perry, M., transferred to Captain
Pate, John, transferred to Captain
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Rodgers, N. B.
Rossel, E. T.
Renslaw, S. P., transferred to Com-
Russel, E. A.
Smith, R. P.
Smith, J. H., transferred to Com-
Spangler, Ed R., transferred to
Sanders, N. M., transferred to
Smith, J. A., transferred to Com-
Stiggers, W R.
Slaughter, A. T., died at Holstou
Springs, July i, 1863.
Slaughter, W. P.
Slaughter, R. P.
Steward, S. M., transferred to
Sanders, \V. F., transferred to
Stevenson, Flourry, transferred to
Sullenger, John T., transferred to
Todd, O. P.., died at Holston
Springs, March 20, 1863.
Threlkeld, G. B.
West, Newt. S.
Wood, D. D.
Webster, J. T.
Waldrop, S. S.
White, Dan'l, transferred to Cap-
Thomas E. Moore, Captain,
wounded at Mossy Creek.
Robert T. Garrard, First Lieuten-
James T. Jenkins, Second Lieu-
W X. Ewing, Second Lieutenant.
Jno. Makemson, Third Lieutenant.
Ben. T. Hume, First Sergeant.
W J. Turner, First Sergeant.
John B. Cason', Second Sergeant.
John E. Lightfoot, Second Ser-
Asbury, James S.
Asbury, Robert F.
Asbury, Sam'l S., died in hospital
November 15, 1862.
Adams, S. F.
Bird, Columbus, captured at Rhea-
town, October 11, 1863.
Boston, Frank A.
Wm. A. Moore, Third Sergeant.
E. J. Rawlings, Third Sergeant.
John W Dance, Fourth Sergeant.
A. J. Rawlings, Fourth Sergeant.
Joseph Brann, Fifth Sergeant,
died at Jonesville, Va., Febru-
W G. Barker, Fifth Sergeant.
Joseph R. Ellis, First Corporal.
F A. Boston, Second Corporal.
Geo. T. Routt, Third Corporal.
John Howk, Fourth Corporal.
James M. McCandless, Farrier.
Beagle, S. K.
Curry, Benj. F.
Carter, Obediah, died June, 1863.
Corbin, Wm. F., shot while re-
cruiting. Order of Burnside.
Cownths, Jonas, died, Jonesville,
Va., February, 1863.
Caldwell, A. J.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Colvin, Beverly M.
Collier, L. F.
Crawford, J. M.
Dickens, Absolom C.
Dorman, James M.
Dance, Thos. B.
Ellis, James, died at Holston
Springs, June, 1863.
Ewing, John J.
Ewing, Satn'l T.
Ewing, Joel, wounded.
Fogle, David K.
Fogle, Geo. W.
Furnish, J. T.
Garrett, John B.
Hume, Samuel F
Hill, Theodore M.
Ingles, Tyra M.
Justice, Isaac D.
Kidwell, Isaac, captured while on
picket, March 21, 1863.
Kirkwood, Cushenberry (W C).
Lovingood, N. J.
Lightfoot, Elkin D.
Lightfoot, John (E.).
McKinney, Wm., wounded.
Morin, Frank S-
Marshall, Robt. F.
Myers, Geo. F-
McKinney, John T.
McGraw, T. J., shot by order of
Martin, James, transferred from
Nelson, Theodore P.
Newman, John W
Orr, Morris, killed Feb. 13, 1864.
Oldfields, Jesse S.
Phillips, John C.
Rule, Geo. R.
Robinson, Francis M.
Routt, Thornton D.
Sellers, James H.
Stowers, David L.
Shively, Andrew J.
Shoemaker, Andrew J.
Turner, Wm. J.
Thompson, Joseph L., captured in
Thompson, John H, captured
February 13, 1864.
Taylor, Joseph F
Tomlin, Henry E.
Victor, John W
Vance, Peter, captured in Ken-
Williams, John T.
Williams, Pope W.
Williams, Wm. P.
Yelton, Wm. H.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
M. T. Pryor, Captain, promoted to
Sam P. Duncan, Captain.
John N. Tague, First Lieutenant,
Henry H. Adcock, First Lieuten-
ant, promoted from Second
Sinnet Duncan, Second Lieuten-
Archie W. Smith, Jr., Second
Wm. Buchanan, First Sergeant.
Thomas J. McElrath, Second Ser-
D. T. Coleman, Second Sergeant.
James T. Buchanan, Third Ser-
Ashby, Z. K., transferred to Fifth
Kentucky, May iS, 1863.
Barriger, Isaac T.
Brain, Win., died at Holston
Springs, March 24, 1863.
Barriger, Robert G., died at Leba-
non, Va., January 10, 1S63.
Ball, Claybourn B.
Beck, Wm., transferred to Captain
Butcher, John Newt.
Burrows, James W.
Bryant, Tully, transferred to Cap-
Bain, Wm. A.
Banks, G. W., transferred to
Colonel Hawkins' Regiment.
Barriger, James W.
Billingsly, R. B.
Connell, Thos. B.
Coleman, Dan'l T.
Clem, Coleman C.
Connell, Albert W.
Wm. T. Scott, Fourth Sergeant,,
transferred to Captain Mar-
Cavallo G. Mayfield, Fourth Ser-
Humphrey May, Fifth Sergeant,
died in Lee Count}-, Va., Jan-
uary 29, 1863.
Albert C. Norvill, Fifth Sergeant.
James F. Roberts, First Corporal.
Richard H. Strother, Second Cor-
A. P Pierce, Third Corporal.
Thomas R. Powell, Fourth Cor-
poral, died at Holston Springs,
April 8, 1S63.
Ziba King, Fourth Corporal.
Caplinger, A. D.
Caplinger, James F.
Caplinger, James W
Campbell, James L.
Douglas, Wm. H, transferred to>
Delany, W A.
Delany, L- L-
Ely, John A.
Fresh, Walter A.
Gossom, Wm. F.
Gecoby, Wm., transferred to Cap-
Glasscock, Wm. P.
Humston, Wm. A.
Humston, T. M.. transferred to
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Jackson, James D.
Jenkins, Wm. L-
Jenkins, Fred'k R.
Kibble, E. G.
Lee, Levi H.
Lamaster, Abraham, transferred
to Captain Marshall.
Martin, John E. F. (or T.)
Moore, George, transferred to
Moscow, Rich'd B.
May, Wm. B.
May, A. J.
Martin, Albert, died at Jonesville,
Va., January 23, 1863.
Morgan, Alfred, died at Holston
Springs March 24, 1863.
May, G. W.
Maline, H. C, transferred to Cap-
Maddox, James W.
Malloy, Peter A.
Nevill, Jas. R.
Neves, B. B.
Pritchett, E. H.
Perry, Benj., transferred to Cap-
Parks, Wm. T.
Powell, John R.
Piles, Wm. H., transferred to Cap-
Pritchard, E. D.
Ransdall, G. T., transferred to
Sidebottom, W. A., transferred to
Sams, G. W.
Scott, Joseph H., died at Jones-
ville, Va., January 15, 1863.
Smith, Henry L.
Sims, Silas G., transferred to
Sams, James R.
Spillman, John H.
Scott, P. C.
Speaks, John P., transferred from
Tharp, G. A.
Turner, Wm. A., transferred to
Vannice, John, transferred from
Vancliver, W. G.
Williams, Mose V
Wilson, Travis, transferred to
Wilson, R. S.
Wilson, D. E.
Wilson, Henry, died at Holston
Springs, March 6, 1863.
Willis, John P.
Wells, James W.
Whitmore, Ed D., transferred to
Young, D., transferred to Captain
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
H. L. Giltner, Captain, promoted
Thomas M. Barrett, Captain, pro-
moted October 6, 1862.
Geo. S. Wood, First Lieutenant.
Wm. Hayden, Second Lieutenant.
Lewis O'Neal, Third Lieutenant.
Lewis S. Ellis, First Sergeant.
John D. Cox, First Sergeant.
Scott T. Souther, Second Sergeant.
R. M. Souther, Third Sergeant.
Brown, James C.
Boorom, George, captured and ex-
Bradley, Wm. H.
Bradley, James A., wounded and
captured at Mt. Sterling, 1864.
Died at Camp Douglas prison.
Baker, J. F.
Booker, Robert B.
Bartlett, W. Taylor.
Baker, Robert, detailed in Med.
Bohon, Wm. J.
Bashaw, Thomas P.
Bower, Charles J.
Cox, W. A.
Carrico, Wm. T.
Carrico, John T.
Campbell, John W
Craig, L- N.
Chadwell, James, died December
Duvall, Sam L.
Darling, A. Frank.
Demint, Wm., transferred to Com-
Ellis, Geo. C, Fourth Sergeant,
detailed as Forage Master.
Burrows, R. W., Fifth Sergeant.
Bond, R. L., First Corporal.
Butts, John W., First Corporal.
McCann, J. J., Second Corporal.
Hayden, Thomas, Third Corporal,
became Chief Bugler, Novem-
ber 25, 1862.
Coghill, James, Third Corporal.
Cox, D. M., Third Corporal.
Dugan, Wm. J., captured and ex-
Ellis, Wm. C.
Ellis, David, transferred to Com-
Ellis, Charles C, transferred to
Ellis, J. A., transferred to Com-
Ellis, L- S., Quartermaster-Ser-
geant, transferred to Com-
Ethridge, J. A.
Forsee, G. N.
Gardner, G. T.
Guthrie, W. S.
Hayden, Fielding V.
Hayden, James M.
Harrison, R. F., promoted to Ser-
Hautzer, W. H.
Highfield, John, transferred to
Hayden, B. F., died at Jonesville,
February 8, 1863.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Hayden, R. F.
Hayden, W. H.
Johnson, W. A., captured and ex-
Kemper, Samuel, transferred to
Kelly. Clint. W
Lindsay, J. W.
Lindsay, J. S. , transferred to Com-
Lacefield, S. M.
McCann, W L., transferred to
Mason, J. P.
McMannis, A. J.
Mosgrove, Geo. D., on detached
service at regimental and
Martin, John M.
Netherland, M. C.
North, James O.
O'Neal, T. J.
O'Neal, J. W.
O'Neal, D. B.
Southard, James L.
Searcy, Abe E.
Scott, S. M.
Searcy, A. G., died at Blouutville,
January 19, 1863.
Searcy, Wm. B., died at Blount-
ville, December 17, 1S62.
Sanders, Henry R.
Sanderson, W H.
Shirley, W. O. B.
Spencer, J. W.
Tandy, James P.
Taylor, T. M.
Taylor, Wm. J.
Tingle, R., transferred to Captain
Vannice, J. C, transferred to Com-
Vories, J. G.
Whitehead, J. R., died at Blount-
ville, November 25, 1862.
Williams, Geo. W.
Wayland, W. A., died at Jones-
ville, February 1, 1863.
Williams, Nat. H.
Williams, O. P.
Wood, Alonzo, died in Hospital
Emory & Henry, Virginia.
D. L. Revill, Captain.
James T. Willis, First Lieutenant,
promoted to Captain, Decem-
ber 22, 1862.
T. D. Redd, Second Lieutenant,
promoted to First Lieutenant
December 22, 1862.
James E- Revill, Second Lieu-
V. R. Belew, Second Lieutenant.
Jo. C. Revill, Third Lieutenant.
L. M. Bond, Third Lieutenant,
promoted to Second Lieu-
tenant, January 12, 1863.
Cyrus W. Threlkeld, First Ser-
Frank Stair, Second Sergeant.
W. H. Moore, Third Sergeant.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
W. V. Sale, Fourth Sergeant.
H. B. Gross, Fifth Sergeant.
Hardin Davis, First Corporal.
W. A. McNeas, First Corporal.
Bridges, B. T.
Brock, W. H., captured in Ken-
Beard, H. J.
Brissey, F. J.
Brown, S. B.
Brumback, Wm. S.
Bruce, A. H.
Berlew, J. R.
Baleon, V. R.
Carter, H. M.
Carter, T. H.
Clark, W M.
Cox, Sam'l C.
Crouch, J. H.
Combs, W. C.
Casseday, J. M.
Cook, A. F.
De Jarnett, W H., transferred to
Dunavant, W. H.
Dixon, T. K.
Davidson, H. J.
Downs, E. J.
Wm. T. Steele, Second Corporal.
Joseph N. Carter, Third Corporal.
Warren Pryor, Farrier.
J. B. Rodgers, Bugler.
Evans, Wm. T.
Ford, W. W.
Finley, F. M., died.
Gravitt, W. H.
Green, John W.
Green, John J.
Harrison, T. D.
Hall, E. D.
Hammond, N. B.
Kuhn, W H.
McHatton, J. J.
O'Banon, P. T.
Pettit, C. G.
Russell, Willis (or Wm.).
Ransdall, M. D.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Redd, T. D.
Ross, W. A.
Rodgers, John, transferred
Rodgers, J. B.
Sale, S. B.
Spencer, G. D.
Suter, John M.
Suter, James M.
to Sale, Austin.
Sechrest, James D.
Threlkeld, W S.
Webb, Joseph F.
Richard O. Gathright, Captain.
J. Crit Ireland, First Lieutenant.
W. W. Pierce, Second Lieutenant.
D. P. Mitchell, Third Lieutenant.
G. W. Welch, First Sergeant.
Wm. Helm, First Sergeant.
W. W. White, First Sergeant, capt-
ured at Moccasin Gap.
J. H. Caplinger, Second Sergeant.
W. Mitchell, Third Sergeant.
John H. Calloway, Third Sergeant.
Crabb," W. L-
Crabb, S. F.
Callaway, O., captured in Ken-
Colbert, W. J.
Crabb, W. B.
Doyle, Geo. W.
R. A. Hoskins, Fourth Sergeant.
W. B. Crabb, Fifth Sergeant.
A. J. Thorn, First Corporal.
W. Burton, Second Corporal.
J. W. Harmon, Third Corporal,
died at Lebanon, Va., January
W. McGavic, Third Corporal.
Lafe Bell, Fourth Corporal.
W. W. Hunt, Fourth Corporal,
captured in Kentucky.
Davis, Flem., killed at Carters Sta-
English, Thos. D.
Faulkner, L. W
Glass, F. M.
Hunt, W. W.
Harmon, O. P.
loskins, R. A.
Hardin, J. R.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Kendall, Thos. D.
Kidwell, O. A.
Mulligan, John H.
McGaffic, W C.
Prewitt, G. W.
Patton, Dolph H.
Riddle, W. T.
Richmond, J. W.
Staples, S. A.
Staples, F M.
Sullivan, W. S.
Sparks, J. F., captured in Ken-
Sandifer, Thos., captured in battle,
Smyser, Geo., killed at Newcastle,
Ky., September, 1862.
Shirley, J. W.
Tucker, W D.
Tungett, J. X.
Tungett, G. W.
Wells, D. N.
Welch, Geo. W
John J. Marshall, Captain, killed at
Russell Court House, Va.
H. S. Chilton, First Lieutenant,
promoted to Captain.
Wm. C. Edrington, Second Lieu-
tenant, promoted to First
Wm. J. Turner, Third Lieutenant,
promoted to Second Lieuten-
S. Hall, Third Lieutenant.
Charles O. Chilton, First Sergeant.
James Tingle.'Second Sergeant.
Thos. Batts, Third Sergeant.
Arnold, Wm. C.
Berry, N. S.
Butcher, J. N.
Clemmons, G. A.
J. W. Carpenter, Third Sergeant.
J. T. Berry, Fourth Sergeant.
J. S. Turner, Fifth Sergeant, died
at Rogersville, January 18,
Joshua Turner, Fifth Sergeant.
W L- Nuttall, First Corporal.
Joseph Turner, Second Corporal.
J. S. Turner, Second Corporal.
S. Harrell, Second Corporal.
Joseph T. Chilton, Third Corporal.
R. Tingie, Third Corporal.
F. M. Humston, Fourth Corporal.
Douglass, W H.
Darnell, W. H.
Douthit, J. L.
Edrington, C. J., died, Cassel
Woods, Va., June 16, 1863.
Harrill, J. S.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Hampton, T. M.
Humston, T. M.
Jones, F. C
Kendall, J. W., transferred to
Kendall, J. R.. transferred to
Lamaster, Hugh J.
May, H., transferred to Colonel
Nuttall, T. B.
Piles, W. H.
Perry, W. M.
Ransdell, G. T., transferred to
Robertson, Ben T.
Sidebottom, W A., transferred to
Scott, W. F.
Stevenson, F., died May, 1863.
Smith, R. P.
Tingle, Roland, transferred to
Tingle, J. A., transferred to Col.
Taylor, F. W.
Tharp, W. J.
Thornsburg, E. D., Ordnance Ser-
Vaughan, Silas, transferred to
Violett, Wm. M.
Wilson, R. J., transferred to
Whipple, G. S.
E. D. Whitaker, Captain, trans-
ferred from Company C.
Nat. M. Sanders, First Lieutenant,
transferred from Company C.
John T. Vanpelt, Second Lieuten-
ant, transferred from Com-
R. H. Orr, Third Lieutenant,
transferred from Company C.
J. A. Smith, Orderly Sergeant.
Thos. J. Uitz, Second Sergeant,
transferred from Scott's Com-
Ed R. Spangler, Third Sergeant,
transferred from Alexander's
David Ellis, Fourth Sergeant,
transferred from Barrett's
Squire Duncan, Fifth Sergeant,
transferred from Alexander's
Michael Gill, Fifth Sergeant,
transferred from Alexander's
Patrick Gill, First Corporal.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
W. J. Arnold, Second Corporal.
Jeptha Arnold, Second Corporal,
transferred from Alexander's
T. D. Alexander, Third Corporal,
transferred from Alexander's
Allcorn, John, transferred from
Allcorn, Benj., transferred from
Bancum, Allen, transferred from
Captain Alexander's Com-
Burke, Patrick, transferred from
Captain Alexander's Com-
Craigmyles, Van Buren, trans-
ferred from Captain Alex-
Craigmyles, Sylvanus, transferred
from Captain Alexander's
Craigmyles, J. W., transferred from
Captain Alexander' Com-
Childs, Geo. M., transferred from
Captain Alexander's Com-
Childs, A. L., transferred from
Captain Alexander's Com.
Catlett, T. A., transferred from
Captain Alexander's Com-
Cook, J. N., transferred from Cap-
tain Alexander's Company.
Callahan, E. D., transferred from
Captain Alexander's Com-
Clements, G. A., transferred from
Captain Alexander's Com-
E. J. Nichols, Third Corporal.
James Douthit, Fourth Corporal,
transferred from Alexander's
Geo. W. Holliday, Blacksmith.
Thos. Hayden, Bugler, transferred
from Barrett's Company.
Calender, John, transferred from
Captain Alexander's Com-
Clemon, G. C, transferred from
Captain Alexander's Com-
Darbrough, Wm., transferred from
Captain Alexander's Com-
Ellis, Louis S., transferred from
Captain Barrett's Company.
Ellis, Charles C, transferred from
Captain Barrett's Company.
Franklin, Robt., died at Lebanon,
Va., December 28, 1862.
Flusser, Guy, of Louisville, Ky.,
killed at Mt. Sterling.
Gill, Matthew, transferred from
Gill, Michael, transferred from
Hartsough, J. C, transferred from
Highfield, John, transferred from
Jones, Alonzo, transferred from
Kemper, Sam'l, transferred from
King, J. T., transferred from Alex-
Lewellyn, John, transferred from
Longley, W. F., transferred from
Lyons, James, transferred from
KENTUtKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
May, Wesley, transferred from
May, G. \V
Minor, Gideon, transferred from
Minor, E. S.
Minor, Edward, transferred from
McDorment, Leander, transferred
from Alexander's Company.
Mosgrove, Geo. D., transferred
from Barrett's Company by
request of Colonel Giltner.
Never served with the Com-
pany ; Clerk in Adjutant-Gen-
McCann, \Y. L., transferred from
Montgomery, John, transferred
from Alexander's Company.
Xichols, E. J., transferred from
O'Donnell. Patrick, transferred
from Alexander's Company.
Poland, J. J., transferred from
Poland, Jesse, transferred from
Rohrer, John, transferred from
Renshaw, S. P., transferred from
Smith, J. H., transferred from
Sanders, Wm., transferred from
Sanders, "Whitfield, transferred
from Alexander's Company.
Stewart, S. M., transferred from
Sanders. W. F.
Thomas, Harrison, transferred
from Scott's Company.
Thornton, Charles, transferred
from Fifth Kentucky.
Company K, being the last company organized, was made up of
officers and men from other companies, principally from that of
Captain Alexander, which was a very large company.
The foregoing muster-rolls are by no means perfect. They fail,
excepting in a few instances, to show the list of killed, wounded,
captured and missing, and many names, doubtless, are not correctly
38 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
General Humphrey Marshall.
"Yet, hear," quoth Howard, " calmly hear,
Nor deem my words the words of fear;
For who, in field or foray slack,
Saw the blanch lion e'er fall back ?
But thus to risk our Border flower
In strife against a kingdom's power,
Ten thousand Scots, 'gainst thousands three,
Certes, were desperate policy."
THE massive form of General Humphrey Marshall, an
intellectual giant, presents itself vividly to my retro-
spective eye, and demands a first and conspicuous place in my
"picture gallery." His prominence, as an orator, lawyer,
soldier and statesman, requires one to assign more space to
him than I shall be able to accord to many other generals
mentioned on succeeding pages. He was the first general
under whom the brigade served, and the boys cherish fond
recollections of the singularly kind-hearted, broad-minded,
Upon his graduation at West Point, in June, 1832, General
Marshall was assigned to the regular army with the rank of
second lieutenant. He immediately attracted the attention
of General Cass, Secretary of War, who offered to place him
in any branch of the service he should prefer. He was in
the campaign against Black Hawk and the Sac Indians, and
received honorable mention from Major-General Winfield
Scott. There being no war, Lieutenant Marshall left the
army, studied law and began the practice at Louisville,
Ky., in November, 1834. In 1836, President Jackson called
for volunteers to march to the Sabine to defend the frontiers
of Louisiana against the Mexicans. A company was formed
in Louisville, which elected Marshall captain. It did not
march, however, as the battle of San Jacinto settled the
status of Texas. In 1837, after an exciting contest, he was
defeated for the Legislature by the Hon. S. S. Nicholas, who
OKX. lirill'HKET MARSHALL.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 39
had just retired from the bench of the Court of Appeals. In
the practice of law he at once took rank with the foremost
of a strong and famous bar.
At the outbreak of the Mexican war he promptly aban-
doned the honors and emoluments of the bar to return to his
first love, the army, as colonel of the Kentucky Cavalry
Regiment which was mustered into service at Louisville,
June 9, 1846. He greatly distinguished himself in that war
for bravery and military acumen. At Buena Vista he gal-
lantly charged the enemy at the head of his Kentuckians,
and, at a critical moment, turned the tide of battle in favor
of General " Rough and Ready's " army. At the close of the
war he returned to Louisville, was nominated for the State
Senate, declined the honor, and removed to a farm in Henry
County, where he soon achieved the reputation of being prob-
ably the most unsuccessful farmer in the State. It is not to
be supposed that the farm received much attention from a
mind profound in other thought. A Whig in politics, he was
elected to Congress from the Louisville district in 1S49, and
again elected in 185 1. In 1852, there being a vacancy in the
United States Supreme Court, the Louisville bar, Kentucky
Court of Appeals and the Kentucky delegation in Congress,
both Whigs and Democrats, united in urging President Fill-
more to appoint Marshall. The President would have done
so, but was prevented by reason of an administrative rule
which limited the successor of a justice to the district to
which the deceased had been assigned. The President, how-
ever, tendered him the mission to Central America, which he
declined. In 1852 he was appointed minister plenipotentiary
to China. In order to see what was most notable in the Old
World, he went to England, thence to France, thence to
Italy ; traversed the Egyptian desert between Cairo and Suez,
arriving at Canton in April, 1853; thence he went to Shang-
hai, where he resided until 1854. In this mission he
achieved high standing as a diplomat. Returning home he
defeated Colonel Wm. Preston for Congress, and, in 1857,
was re-elected, defeating the Hon. Mr. Holt. Nominated by
acclamation in 1859, he declined, not approving the platform
which his party adopted, it simply declaring opposition to the
40 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
Democratic party. He then became a Democrat and ably
supported Breckinridge for the Presidency. About this time,
his private fortune having been much neglected, he formed a
partnership with ex-United States Senator Cooper, of Penn-
sylvania, for the purpose of practicing his profession in the
United States Supreme Court, Court of Claims and depart-
ments at Washington City. The firm was successful, but at
the outbreak of the Civil war the partnership was dissolved,
and there being no other prospect for Colonel Marshall than
to espouse the Southern cause, in the summer of 1861 he
established a Confederate camp in Owen County, Ky., near
Lusby's Mills, on a high hill which commanded an extensive
view of the surrounding country. Hundreds of men as-
sembled there to join the Confederate army, the majority of
whom succeeded in making their way south, while some
returned to their homes. Vallandingham's barn, near Owen-
ton, was another rendezvous. Colonel Marshall made his
way to Nashville September, 1861, where he was commis-
sioned a brigadier-general and given an independent com-
mand, styled " The Arm}- of Eastern Kentucky," which was
expected to invade the State through the Eastern mountain
passes. The fall of Fort Donelson frustrated this plan, and
the little army was compelled to assume the defensive. A
battle fought at Middle Creek, Floyd County, Ky., between
General Marshall and General Garfield, in 1862, was not a
very sanguinary affair ; both sides claimed the victory, but
Garfield retired to Paintsville, while Marshall remained near
the battlefield the rest of the winter. The movements of Mar-
shall depended entirely upon occurrences in the West. His
campaign through the winter of 186 1-2 was one of the hard-
est ever endured by soldiers — being compelled to subsist on
a country where agriculture was necessarily very limited, and
to grind what little corn was to be had in diminutive, primi-
tive water mills on the mountain streams, their utmost
capacity being to grind about two bushels in twenty-four
hours. Much of the time the men subsisted on parched
A Federal force commanded by Major-General Cox at
Princeton, Va., was surprised and defeated by General Mar-
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 41
shall, in May, 1862. This victory relieved the Lynchburg
& Knoxville Railroad, and Southwestern Virginia, of the
presence of Federal troops. The general was highly com-
plimented by General L,ee in a personal letter.
When McClelland was defeated before Richmond it was
deemed an auspicious time to invade Kentucky, and President
Davis ordered General Marshall to prepare to command the
invading forces. The President, however, made a mistake,
much regretted by the army, by changing his mind and giv-
ing the command to General Bragg. General Marshall was
confessedly an admirably equipped man to command such an
expedition. Thoroughly acquainted with the people and
topography of the State — General Bragg was acquainted with
neither — there is every reason to believe the invasion would
have been more successful had Marshall been in command.
He, like Bragg, was a "West Pointer;" both had served
in the Mexican war; but Marshall was infinitely Bragg's
superior in broad comprehensiveness of mind; in fact,
was peculiarly adapted to the command of the army
in Kentucky in 1862.
At Mt. Sterling, Ky., General Marshall made a speech to
his new recruits, the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, which, in
the light of subsequent events, proved to be prophetic. He
assured them that his personal knowledge of the men who
were running the political machinery of the Federal govern-
ment, and his acquaintance with their prominent military
men, who had been his classmates at West Point and his
comrades in Mexico, led him to believe that they would not
easily be defeated in their relentless crusade against the
Southland. He was aware that we were mere boys, who
entertained the idea that we were out on a " frolicsome kind
of a high roller," and that it would require but a brief time
to roll back the masses of invading Northmen, a la Manassas.
He said we must at once unload our minds of such " foolish
notions," and prepare to endure a long siege and to see grim-
visaged war in all its horrors. He stripped the war picture
of all gilt and fancy tints, leaving in view nothing but a dark,
forbidding perspective. The address was well-timed and
convinced us that we were not there for a "rollicking frolic,"
42 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
but it by no means discouraged us, nor did it abate our
enthusiasm for the cause of sunny Dixieland.
When the retreat from Kentucky began, with our backs
turned upon our homes and faces looking southward, there
was no murmuring. The march to the old mother State,
Virginia, was long, wearisome and disagreeable.
It was on this march that we struck our first reall}- rough
experience, when we encountered the heavy snowstorm,
October 26, 1862. It caught us high up on a mountain on a
narrow, winding road amid a dense forest. Some wagons in
front having broken down, and being otherwise blockaded,
we were forced to remain in the road on the mountain side
all night in the deep snow, without food or fire, and in im-
minent danger of being crushed by the snow-laden tree-
branches falling all around us. This was by no means an
inspiring time for singing the song, "Ain't you glad you
joined the cavalry?"
The Federal general, Carter, made a raid into Virginia
from Kentucky in the winter of 1862-3, penetrating to the
railroad at Bristol. The weather was intensely cold, and we
had just made ourselves as comfortable as possible for the
night, being in winter quarters at Lebanon, when the news
came of Carter's movement. Tom Hayden's bugle horn
sounded "boots and saddles," and in a short time we were
facing the wintry blast, passing the night in our saddles
instead of in our tents. After a hard march of several days
and nights we finally, at nightfall, attacked Carter at Jones-
ville, doing him little damage, as his main column was even
then escaping into Kentucky through a gap in the Cumber-
land Mountains near that village. Finding we were close
upon the enemy, with a chance of intercepting him at that
point, the command dashed forward at a trot, and it was here
that, for nearly a mile, the road was strewn with playing
cards which the boys, believing they were going into a bloody
battle, had thrown away, not wishing to be ushered into the
presence of God and the angels with the condemnatory cards
in their pockets. As a faithful chronicler, however, I must
state that after the " scrimmage " was over the boys gathered
up the cards and never threw them away again.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 43
In the spring of 1863, General Marshall marched his cav-
alry into Kentucky, the plan being to establish headquarters
at Lexington. Generals Pegram and Jenkins were to co-
operate with him, by attaching their commands to his, mak-
ing a little army of occupation seven or eight thousand
strong; but, Pegram on the left and Jenkins on the right,
by pursuing independent movements, failed to co-operate,
thereby frustrating the success of the enterprise. General
Marshall, however, alarmed the Federals by making a
demonstration on the town of Louisa, on the Big Sandy
River. The place was strongly fortified on the side of our
approach, and garrisoned by a brigade under command of
General White. In order to carry it by storm, it would be
necessary to charge up the side of a high hill, where trees
had been felled, and in the face of the enemy's cannon and
concealed musketry. The place was not worth taking, and
it was plain that its capture would necessitate the slaughter
of many of our boys, while there was grave doubt of our
ability to capture it at all. The officers and men had been
" spoiling for a fight" and clamoring to be led to fields of
gore. It has been surmised that General Marshall led them
to the front of this apparently impregnable place to satisfy
their thirst for blood. Calling a council of war, he said,
" Gentlemen, there is the enemy ; if you want to go up there
I will lead you." Recognizing the foolhardiness of assault-
ing such a fortress, they wisely decided that discretion was
the better part of valor, and declined to sacrifice themselves.
Thus this march resembled that of the King of France, who
marched up the hill and then marched down again.
We were much annoyed by the bushwhackers, many of
whom we captured and then shot, or, in army phrase, we
"lost" them. No mercy was shown to these bloodthirsty,
skulking land pirates.
The staff officers comprising General Marshall's military
family were intrepid, efficient, accomplished gentlemen and
soldiers. I now recall to memory the conspicuous figure of
Captain Bart W Jenkins, the tall, dashing, impulsive aid-de-
camp, brave as Marshal Lannes ; Captain Edward O. Guer-
rant, A. A. G. ; Major Ed Crutchfield, Quartermaster-
44 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
General, and Colonel Charles Marshall. Of the commanders
of regiments and battalions I call to mind Colonel Giltner,
Colonel Zeke Clay, Colonel Candall, Colonel Tom Johnson
and Major Shawhan. There were others whom I can not at
this time remember.
Upon our return to Virginia, General Marshall was ordered
to report to General Joe Johnston, in Mississippi, the brigade
being now placed under command of General Wm. Pres-
This permanently ended our association with General
Marshall. He proceeded to Mississippi where General John-
ston desired to give him command of a division, but was
overrruled by the authorities at Richmond, and another gen-
eral was appointed to the place. He was then offered the
brigade of General Lloyd Tilgham, recently killed, but, in-
stead of accepting it, he tendered the resignation of his
commission, which was reluctantly accepted. He then went
to Richmond and began the practice of law, June, 1863.
There he was elected to the Confederate Congress where
he served until the stars and bars were furled at Appo-
Had General Marshall remained in the army and been
given a command commensurate with his great ability, I
doubt not his name would have been as illustrious in war as
is his fame as a jurist and statesman.
General Marshall was a large man, weighing probably three
hundred pounds ; possibly more. But notwithstanding his
massive avoirdupois, he carried himself erect and gracefully.
With the possible exceptions of General John C. Breckin-
ridge and General S. B. Buckner, I do not think I ever saw
a more soldier-like figure on horseback. He was by no means
slow or sluggish in movement. His head was large and his
face pleasant, reflecting the kindness of his heart. He was a
charming conversationalist, a master of language.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 45
General Wiiaiam Preston.
" All hail the proud crest of the brave cavalier,
His banner unconquered, resistless his spear."
General Preston, who succeeded Marshall in command of
the troops in Southwestern Virginia, was a man of proud,
aristocratic lineage, and came to us laden with laurels won in
the political arena, as a diplomat in royal courts and as a
dashing soldier on many a hard-fought battlefield. His proud
banner and gleaming sword had been notably conspicuous in
the memorable charge across Stone River, where he com-
manded the right wing of General Breckinridge's division,
and where, facing two Federal divisions and fifty-eight can-
non, 1,700 Confederates, out of 7,000, fell during the brief
but terrible melee. In that battle nearly all of his staff offi-
cers were killed or wounded.
One morning, soon after he took command of the Marshall
brigade, I had occasion to visit the general's headquarters,
and, finding him at breakfast, was charmed by his courtly
manners and thoughtful courtesy
He and his military family were indulging in reminiscences,
the special topic of conversation being the charge at Stone
River. Captain Joe C. S. Blackburn, aid-de-camp, always
voluble and entertaining, was the principal talker. He
humorously remarked that General Preston had seemed de-
termined to have his staff officers killed off at Stone River,
and congratulated himself that the general's fell purpose had
failed in regard to him, and that he felt that his life was
"charmed." The general laughingly rejoined: "That's
all bosh, Blackburn ; I'll have you killed in the very next
battle." Seeing me standing at "attention," the courtly
general ordered me to sit down and eat breakfast — a com-
mand which I was not slow to obey, the behest reminding
me of the words of Roderick Dhu :
" Enough, enough; sit down and share
A soldier's couch, a soldier's fare."
General Preston retained command in Virginia but a short
time, being transferred to the army of General Bragg in time
to greatly distinguish himself in the battle of Chickamauga.
46 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
I quote from another author: " General Preston commanded
a division at Chickamauga, where, after the repulse by
General George H. Thomas of I^ongstreet, with Hood's di-
vision, under McLaws, and the repulse of another attack by
Hindman's division, Preston ordered Grade's brigade to fix
bayonets and renew the attack, and, pressing after him with
his whole force, he gained Missionary Ridge, and drove the
Federals in confusion headlong down the ridge and through
every avenue of escape to Chattanooga. His great victory,
however, was gained at terrible cost — losing out of 4,078
men, 14 officers and 184 men killed, 63 officers and 1,014 men
wounded, and 61 missing, a total of 1,336, or one-third. The
correspondent of the London Times said that Preston's bear-
ing in that charge would rank in history with that of Dessaix
recovering the lost battle of Marengo."
General Preston was a notably handsome man, with accom-
plishments to grace any station,
COL. HENRY LITER GILTSER.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 47
Colonel Henry Liter Giltner.
" To horse! to horse! the standard flies;
The bugles sound the call."
COLONEL. GILTNER entered the Confederate army at
Munfordville, Ky., in September, 1861, joining the
Buckner Guards as a private soldier. Within a short time
he was ordered to report to General Humphrey Marshall,
who assigned him to duty as aid-de-camp on his staff.
In July, 1862, with M. T. Pryor, Nathan Parker, Peter
Everett and sixteen other Kentuckians, he started upon the
hazardous service of recruiting in Kentucky. The State
was full of Federal troops, and before the party reached the
bluegrass region, all except Giltner, Pryor, Parker and
Everett concluded that the enterprise was fraught with too
many dangers, and declined to go any further. Captain
Everett stopped in Montgomery, his home, while the others,
after many narrow escapes, losing their horses and clothes,
walking through fields and forests by night, and hiding dur-
ing the day, finally reached the border counties, in which
they intended to operate.
At that time Colonel Giltner was a lithe, graceful man, of
dignified mien, slightly above medium height, symmetrically
proportioned, dark complexion, hair and beard black as the
raven's wing, gray eyes, and about thirty-three years old.
He was neatly attired, and when he became colonel of the
Fourth Kentucky always wore the full and handsome uni-
form of his rank, and rode a magnificent dapple-gray
charger — his old war horse "Billy." Cool, collected, abso-
lutely impervious to excitement, he was a man of dauntless
bravery and wonderful fortitude. A strict disciplinarian, yet
kind of heart; never effusive nor demonstrative in affection,
he nevertheless concerned himself more for the comfort of
his troops than any other commander I ever knew. Belong-
4s KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
ing to his military family, I understood him thoroughly and
know whereof I write. A soft voice and an easy flow of
language made him an entertaining companion, and yet, his
dignified bearing and a peculiarity, natural to him, of "car-
rying his head high," impressed not a few with the mistaken
idea that he was cold and exclusive. Under his quiet exte-
rior was a vein of humor, and no man had a higher appre-
ciation of the humorous and ludicrous than he.
The following letter explains itself:
Headquarters Department of West Virginia
and East Tennessee.
WyTHEVille, Va., February 16, 1864.
General S. Cooper, Adjutant, Inspector-General.
General : I respectfully recommend the promotion of Colonel
H. L. Giltner, Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, to the rank of brigadier-
general. Colonel Giltner has held his present rank since October 5,
1862, and has always discharged his duty most faithfully and effi-
ciently, both in the camp and in the field. For nearly two years of
this time he has been in command of a brigade, and has shown him-
self on all occasions fully equal to the position, both in the discipline
of his men and in handling them on the field of battle. He is a rigid
disciplinarian, always having his command well in hand, looking to
their wants and promoting their efficiency. Since the transfer of
Brigadier-General John S. Williams from the department Colonel
Giltner has commanded his old brigade, of which he is still in com-
mand. This brigade, according to last returns, shows an aggregate
of nine hundred and eighty men, and will, I think, be materially
increased under the management of Colonel Giltner. I ask this pro-
motion because I think it would be an act of justice to a most deserv-
ing and industrious officer.
I have the honor to be, general,
Very respectfully, etc.,
Brigadier-General, Commanding Department.
Promotions were often slow, and not until the closing days
of the Confederacy was tardy justice done and Colonel Gilt-
ner duly commissioned a brigadier-general. However, the
flag went down at Appomattox before the commission was
forwarded to him.
Colonel Giltner died in the summer of 1892, at Murfrees-
boro, Tenn., and the remains were taken to Carrollton, Ky.,
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 49
his native home, for burial. The obsequies were attended
by about fifty of his old regiment, a number of Confederates
of other commands, and a large concourse of citizens. His
comrades adopted appropriate resolutions and conducted the
" Ay, speak with bated breath,
And move with measured tread
Among the grass-grown dwellings
In the city of the dead.
" Here warriors of the gallant past,
The heroes of the land,
The sons the sunny South sent forth,
That gray-clad, honored band,
" Who heard death's whispers 'mid the strife,
And answered prompt the calls,
Dream out an endless night of peace
Within these voiceless walls."
The following just tribute to the memory of Colonel
Giltner was written by his accomplished adjutant-general :
Hazard, Ky., August 27, 1892.
From these mountains, where I once followed this brave officer, I
send this tribute to his unsullied memory.
I knew him better than most men, for I had the honor to belong
to his military family, and I knew him under those peculiar circum-
stances which reveal a man's true character. Henry Giltner was a
man among men. No man ever commanded truer, braver men than
his old regiment. They chose him because of the sterling quali-
ties which he possessed in a rare degree. It was not because he was
a great man ; he was not ; not because he was a learned man ; his edu-
cation was very limited; not because he was a trained soldier; he
knew but little of military tactics or the art of war ; but he possessed
what was better than all these virtues — character. If I were asked
why this humble, uneducated countryman rose to eminent distinc-
tion among the best and bravest men I ever knew, I would say,
I never knew Henry Giltner to do a mean thing ; I never knew him
to speak a base word ; I never knew him to compromise the dignity
or character of a gentleman. I saw him in many trying and difficult
positions, and he was always the wise, cool, self-poised, courageous
man. I never knew him flurried, and I do not remember that I ever
50 KENTUCKY CA V ALTERS IN DIXIE.
saw him angry during nearly four years of war. His gentleness and
moderation were proverbial. He lacked the brilliancy of Murat, but
he possessed the will and firmness of the Iron Duke, which were
better. His old Fourth Kentucky Regiment was the best corps of
soldiers I knew during the war. This is no small praise, for they
fought side by side with brave men from Kentucky, Virginia, Georgia,
Tennessee and North Carolina. That regiment I have often seen
bear the brunt of battle and turn the tide of war. They went in the
advance toward the enemy, and in the rear on the retreat. Generals
assigned them posts of honor and danger. That regiment is the best
eulogy on Henry Giltner. True, it had splendid material and brave
officers, but he was commander. To him, more than to any other
man, it owed its morals, its character, its glory. Death never laid a
truer man or braver soldier on the bosom of his mother State. Ken-
tucky may be proud to number him among her honored and heroic
Farewell, true friend, brave soldier. I shall meet you when we
have conquered death.
Edward O. Guerrant.
CAPT. BI5WART) O. r.rERRiNT.
KEXTUCKY CA VALIERS IX DIXIE. ol
Adjutaxt-CtExerai, Edward O. Guerr-ixi.
" High place to thee in royal couri.
High place in battled line.''
AXATIYE of Sharpsburg, Ky. , his father a talented phy-
sician, Captain Edward O. Guerrant was a favored' son
of the bluegrass country A bright, handsome young man,
Chesterfieldian in manner, possessing -wondrous fluency of
speech, a graduate of Centre College, his accomplishments
were so many and varied that he was admired by men and
women. Although a small man, his was a conspicuous
figure in any assemblage. Polite as the politest Frenchman,
gentle and refined as any lady, he was a superb cavalier,
intrepid as Henry of Xavarre. from whose sunny France he
had descended. He served during the war as a staff officer,
performing the duties of adjutant-general for General Mar-
shall, General Williams, General Cosby and Colonel Giltner.
I was adjutant-general's clerk, and intimately associated with
him. He was exceptionally kind to me, a delicate, slender,
beardless boy and. of course, my recollections of him are most
pleasant. My duties were to assist in keeping the records of
the brigade, copy orders and letters, carry orders, etc. He kept
a voluminous journal, which was written in attractive and
interesting style, both as to subject-matter and chirography,
the latter being artistically ornamental. He often required
me to write some favorite geiu of verse or prose, which he
desired to preserve, in the journal. He was fastidious about
the work and watchful that I did it neatly and correctly At
the close of the war, he had twenty or thirty, probably more,
volumes of the journal, and a few of them have been of
incalculable value to me in writing this book. Seemingly
without effort. Captain Guerrant was always faultlessly, not
to sav fastidkmslv. attired. Xo matter what the condition:?
52 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
of the weather, he and his horse invariably appeared as if
ready to go on dress parade or to pass inspection.
In a parlor filled with ladies and gentlemen, the captain
was generally the cynosure of attention and the charmingly
fascinating monopolizer of the conversation. The more
ladies, the better — the faster he would talk. If there was a
mirror in the room, he was likely to walk to it, brush his
hair and arrange his necktie, talking volubly and entertain-
ingly all the while. Such procedure would have been
ludicrously grotesque in any other man, but with the adju-
tant-general it seemed to be the correct thing to do, and no
one thought of criticising his peculiar movements ; his grace,
his wit and vivacity charmed his auditors, who, unquestion-
ingly, gave him carte bla?iche to do as he pleased.
His comrades thought that when " the cruel war was over"
he would make a magnificent lawyer; but when he laid aside
his elegant uniform, and donned civilian garb, he chose to
become a disciple of yEsculapius, and attended lectures in
Philadelphia, becoming a successful physician. Soon there-
after, however, he became impressed with the conviction
that it was his duty to employ his gifted mind and rare
accomplishments in preaching his Master's gospel, which
profession he has followed with the same vigor and success
that characterized all his former undertakings. His eloquent
voice has been heard throughout Kentucky and in many of
the Southern States.
Captain Peyton Miller
Was another gallant staff officer, an aid-de-camp, young and
gifted. He was poetically inclined, and wrote a great deal.
The soul of honor, it was impossible for him to be anything
less than a gentleman. No braver soldier in gray ever drew
a sword than Captain Peyton Miller, who was never happier
than when, with flashing saber, he was charging the enemy.
At Morristown (or Mossy Creek), Tenn., while fighting
hand to hand some Federal infantry, who, with bayonets
fixed, had formed a hollow square, his sword arm received a
severe thrust, which disabled him, and he was compelled,
reluctantly, to retire from the combat.
LIEIT.-COL. -MUSICS TANDY PRYOR.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 53
Lieutenant-Colonel Moses Tandy Pryor.
" Theirs was the glee of martial breast,
And laughter theirs at little jest;
And oft Lord Marmion deigned to aid
And mingle in the mirth they made ;
For though, with men of high degree,
The proudest of the proud was he ;
Yet, trained in camps, he knew the art
To win the soldier's hardy heart ;
They love a captain to obey
Boisterous as March, yet fresh as May."
AS we turn back the hands on time's dial thirty years, we
behold a knightly cavalier suggestive of the romantic
age of chivalry. No more valorous knight e'er laid lance in
rest, or more gallantly graced castle halls, challenging the ad-
miration of fair women and brave men — a chevalier such as
inspired the pen of Sir Walter Scott and the minstrel's tune-
About thirty years old, with a tall, graceful, commanding
figure, neatly attired in the uniform of a Confederate lieu-
tenant-colonel, a clear, strong voice, and frank expression,
make up the engaging personality of Colonel Tandy Pryor.
Through the instrumentality of General Wm. Nelson, early
in August, 1861, the Federal Government introduced muni-
tions of war into Kentucky, and distributed them to a class
of men calling themselves " Home Guards," and, at the same
time, secretly enlisted men into the Federal army, establish-
ing a camp between Nicholasville and Danville known as
" Camp Dick Robinson."
Regarding such procedure as a violation of Kentucky's
assumed neutrality, the Confederates occupied Columbus,
Ky., on the Mississippi River, September 3, 1861. Both
Confederate and Federal partisans then actively began taking
A regiment of State Guards, under Colonel Roger Han-
son, repaired to Camp Boone, in Northern Tennessee, and
became a nucleus, around which gathered battalions and
54 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
companies of the Kentucky State Guard, and individuals
seeking service in Dixie.
General Simon Bolivar Buckner, an accomplished man of
affairs, a graduate of West Point, had been inspector-general
of the State Guard, with the rank of major-general. He
also went to Camp Boone and took command of the troops
assembled there. At this camp the Second, Third, Fourth
and Fifth Kentucky regiments were organized.
It was to Camp Boone that M. T. Pryor and his two
brothers-in-law, Henry L,. Giltner and Gideon B. Giltner,
James G. Owen, Nathan Parker, Love Garriott, Wm. D. Ray,
Sam P. Duncan, and others from Carroll, Trimble and Henry
counties, repaired in September, 1861. Gid Giltner soon
took typhoid fever and died at the residence of a relative in
Southern Kentucky. Pryor and his associates attached them-
selves to the famous Buckner Guards, an organization that
attained an enviable reputation at Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862.
Shortly after the battle of Shiloh, Colonel Pryor visited
his home at Carroll ton, secretly remaining with his family
four days. He again visited his home August 9, 1862, when
he, Giltner and Parker proceeded to recruit the Fourth Ken-
tucky Cavalry. With a part of the regiment they started
for the Confederate lines September 9, 1862, just one month
after Colonel Pryor's return to his home.
Colonel Giltner having been promoted to the command of
the brigade, Colonel Pryor commanded the Fourth Kentucky
during much of its fighting career.
On the battlefield Colonel Pryor was a favorite with the
men, especially when there was a demand for quick, decisive,
intelligent action. Intuitively he seemed to know what to
do, and his promptitude inspired his men with a confidence
that made his rapid movements irresistible.
When a boy I had read much of the enticing literature of
the age of chivalry, and had also been a fascinated reader of
the history of Napoleon and his marshals. Colonel Pryor's
personality and bearing as a cavalry officer reminded me of
Murat and Dessaix, and of the cavaliers of whom the epic
poets were wont to sing and whose chivalric deeds inspired
the lyrics of wandering minstrels.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 55
Colonel Pryor was captured at Cynthiana, during Morgan's
last raid in Kentucky, June 12, 1864, and held a prisoner on
Johnsons Island until the close of the war. He loved the
South, its soldiers, its banners, its battle -flags. No man
knew better how to lead charging squadrons or to rally a
wavering line. He was a strict disciplinarian and a most
excellent drill officer.
Colonel Pryor was released from prison June 18, 1865, and
arrived home two days later. He died in Arkansas, of swamp
fever, January- S, 1S73, after an illness of only forty-eight
hours, aged forty years eleven months and four daj-s.
"Blow, ye breezes, softly o'er him!
Fan his brow with gentlest breath ;
Disturb ye not the peaceful slumbers —
Our chieftain sleeps the sleep of death. "
Mrs. Barbara A. Pryor.
A history of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry would be incom-
plete without the name of Mrs. Barbara Pryor. This noble
lad}-, indomitably energetic, fearless and self-sacrificing in her
support of the lost cause, was regarded by the "boys" as
almost one of the regiment. Being the wife of Colonel
Pryor and sister of Colonel Giltner, she was indeed a near
relative and an honorary member of the " Old Fourth." She
was in the field for four years (or during the war) soliciting
clothing, provisions and other supplies for the poor fellows
who were confined in horrible prison pens. While other
ladies did much, Mrs. Pryor did more. The history of strug-
gles and hardships endured by her during those eventful
four 3-ears can never be written. Imbued with the same
spirit that characterized her husband and brother, she was
persistent in her great work, and, though often faint and
weary, she bravely kept the field, undaunted b} T winter's cold
or summer's heat and the innumerable obstructions thrown
in her pathway She was the general-in-chief of every relief
corps. The "boys" long since erected monuments in their
hearts in commemoration of her efforts in their behalf.
56 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
When she passes away to join her husband on the eternal
camping ground the few survivors of the old regiment will
reverentlj- see that her grave is kept green ; beautify it
with flowers, wreath it with laurel and crown it with immor-
I am indebted to Mrs. Pryor for much valuable data for
these reminiscences. She has in her possession her hus-
band's uniform, numerous relics and papers of the war
period. She furnished me the following list of officers of
Giltner's brigade, who were prisoners with Colonel Pryor on
FOURTH KENTUCKY REGIMENT. '
M. T. Pryor, Lieutenant-Colonel.
Ben F. Duncan, Captain, Company A.
Sam P. Duncan, Captain, Company E.
Nat M. Sanders, First Lieutenant, Company K.
J. Pen Garvey, Second Lieutenant, Company C.
R. Frank Harrison, Sergeant-Major.
Wm. D. Ray, Major.
J. T. Alexander, Captain, Company C.
E. D. Whitaker, Captain, Company K.
Lewis O'Neal, Second Lieutenant, Company F.
Sylvester Hall, Second Lieutenant, Company I.
FIRST BATTALION MOUNTED RIFLES.
E. F- Clay, Lieutenant-Colonel.
James Hardin, Captain, Company A.
James G. Bedford, Captain, Company D.
J. S. Pittman, First Lieutenant, Company B.
M. Holbrook, First Lieutenant, Company E.
John N. Gibson, Second Lieutenant, Company B.
H. H. Duncan, Second Lieutenant, Company A.
James W. Jordan, Second Lieutenant, Company E.
John B. Holliday, Major.
B. B. Mullins, Captain, Company C.
James White, Captain, Company F.
R. Cummings, First Lieutenant, Company C.
W. F. Smith, First Lieutenant, Company F.
H. C. Clay, Second Lieutenant, Company D.
Frank Parks, Second Lieutenant, Company H.
Geo. A. Ronte, Second Lieutenant, Company A.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 57
SECOND BATTALION MOUNTED RIFLES.
G. W. Jackson, Captain, Company B.
Wm, L. Flood, First Lieutenant, Company F.
Richard Morton, First Lieutenant, Company E.
J. M. Riffe, Second Lieutenant, Company D.
M. W. Proctor, First Lieutenant, Company E.
John Harris, First Lieutenant, Company D.
M. B. Hardin, Second Lieutenant, Company E.
Richard , Second Lieutenant, Company C.
TENTH KENTUCKY MOUNTED INFANTRY.
H. H. Stamper, Captain, Company A.
Wm. Landram, Captain, Company G.
TSJewton Moore, Captain and Assistant Quartermaster.
Geo. Hogg, Captain, Company B.
S. R. Brasher, Captain, Company H.
Five officers of the Sixth Confederate Battalion, whose names are
so indistinct that they can not be read.
58 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
Major Nathan Parker.
" Charge them, my brave boys! "
" Nor shall his glory be forgot
While Fame her record keeps;
Or Honor points the hallowed spot
Where Valor proudly sleeps."
OXE of the noblest duties of the living is to perpetuate the
virtues and memories of the dead. In obedience to the
impulse of this sacred sentiment, I now attempt to sketch a
soldier whose attractive personality and superb martial bear-
ing challenged the love and admiration of all men ; a chief-
tain whose escutcheon was stainless as the robe of an angel
in heaven ; a cavalier whose every word and deed was abso-
lutely beyond criticism — Major Nathan Parker. I can
employ no language eulogistic of this lovable officer that
will not awaken a responsive echo in the heart of every man
who served in the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry. While the
soldiers admired the cool, brave, imperturbable Giltner, and
enthusiastically sang paeans in praise of the dashing, indomi-
table Pryor, they loved Parker, who, calm, kind, modest and
courteous, readily won the unswerving fealty of all his com-
panions in arms.
Tall and erect, well proportioned, but not very strong,
rather dark complexion, jet-black hair and beard, fascinating
dark eyes, soft and kind in expression, Major Parker was not
only an attractive personage, but he was lovable. He was
invariably neatly attired, wearing the uniform of a Con-
federate major. A truer patriot or knightlier soldier never
fought nor ever died. He fought for the Confederacy, and
for the Confederacy he died. He was the "Stonewall" of
his regiment; yea, of the brigade. A soldier of great forti-
tude, he never murmured at any hardship, nor hesitated to
obey an order that would carry him into the jaws of death.
-MAJOR NATHAN PARKER.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 69
When, amid the tempest of battle, men were falling about
him and the lines wavering, Major Parker, cool and daunt-
less, was the last to retire, seemingly, like Stonewall Jackson,
to love nothing so much as the whizzing of bullets, the
shrieking of shells, the flash and roar, the clamor and din of
battle. He was not only a commander, but a comrade, fight-
ing with his men. If he had a crust of bread, he shared it
with the humblest soldier. Though dignified in bearing, no
soldier hesitated to approach him for advice or information.
He was just as courteous to one of the boys in the trenches
as to any officer with stars on his collar. In foregoing chap-
ters I have had occasion to mention this model hero, and his
name will hereafter frequently appear. He was by nature a
military man, and no vocation in life would have suited him
so well as that of a professional soldier. His deeds we
honor, his death we mourn; and yet, it seemed eminently
fitting that this officer should die on a battlefield. His was
an ideal soldier's death, falling, as he did, in the uniform of
the Southern Confederacy, amid her soldiers and advancing
flags. He died unconquered, his last words being, "Charge
them, my brave boys." This occurred near Wytheville, Va.,
in a battle between the Confederates under General John
H. Morgan and the Federals under General Averill,
May 10, 1864. The ball that killed Major Parker struck him
immediately over the heart. It being a spent bullet, it merely
discolored the skin, the concussion causing death, which was
instantaneous. It may be that the major had heart trouble ; I
do not know. As he sank to the ground, he uttered the words,
" Charge them, my brave boys," and the same words are
inscribed on his tomb at Bedford, Ity., his home, where,
after the war, the remains were brought from Virginia, and
interred with imposing ceremonies. 'Tis well. 'Neath his
parent turf his body rests, far from the gory field, where
strange footfalls and tongues resound along the heedless air.
"The sunshine of his native sky
Smiles sadly on him here ;
And kindred eyes and hearts watch by
The hero's sepulcher."
While I thus memorialize Major Parker, it must not be
60 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
forgotten that thousands of humbler soldiers died just as
valorously for the "lost cause."
The South, God love her, has not forgotten her slain sons.
[General Orders No. j2.]
Headquarters First Brigade Morgan's Cavalry.
WythEvielE, Va., May n, 1864.
I. The remains of Major Nathan Parker, Fourth Regiment Ken-
tucky Cavalry, will be buried by his own regiment, with military
honors, to-day at 3 P. M.
II. Lieutenant-Colonel M. T. Pryor, Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, will
superintend the military ceremonies, Rev. S. F. Cameron the religious
ceremonies, commencing at 2:30 o'clock, at the Presbyterian Church.
These marks of respect are but outward testimonials of the rever-
ence we owe the distinguished dead.
No token of grief can sufficiently express our deep sorrow at the
loss of such a man, so open in his character, so noble in his action,
so calm and heroic in his bearing. Few men have ever equaled and
none have ever surpassed the singular and sublime integrity of his
To his bereaved family, in a distant State, his fall is an irreparable
loss. His country had no purer patriot, no braver defender. The
regiment of his constant care and affection will long feel his loss and
mourn his fall.
It is only in our higher faith, that " All is for the best," we can
find consolation in our grief at this unexpected stroke from the hand
that " doeth all things well."
Though the grave shall hide forever from our view the noble form
of that godlike man, his memory shall not perish from our hearts,
nor his name be forgotten.
Soldiers, we can best testify our high appreciation of his character
and our lasting affection for his kindness by imitating his example
and following his pathway, which will ever shine with the unfading
luster of his noble deeds.
Let his memory be our cynosure through life, and his last words,
" Charge them, my brave boys," our rallying cry and song of victory.
Edward O. GuERRant, A. A. G,
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 61
The Buttermilk Ranger.
" Comrades, leave me here a little,
While as yet 'tis early morn ;
Leave me here, and when you want me,
Sound upon the bugle horn."
TO the Confederate cavalryman, his brother, the infantry-
man, gave the soubriquet " The Buttermilk Ranger ; "
not that the cavalryman had any special predilection for
buttermilk, but because the " web-foot," when out on a private
foraging expedition, almost invariably found the cavalryman
had been in advance of him. The fact is, the cavalryman was
more of a ranger for cane-reed whisky and applejack than for
The typical Confederate cavalryman was a daring, reckless,
happy-go-lucky, sufficient -unto -the -day-is-the-evil-thereof
sort of a fellow. If he had four days' rations in his haver-
sack he contrived to " get away with them " in one day. He
lived for the present, concerning himself very little about the
future. He was, however, more provident for his horse than
for himself, because, unlike the Federal cavalryman, he had
to furnish his own horse, and should he become dismounted
he must go into the infantry, the very thought of which was
peculiarly disgusting, especially to the Kentucky and Texan
fellows. Without any conscientious scruples whatever he
would steal forage from his dearest comrade.
As he had to be "the eyes and ears of the army," the
cavalryman was, perforce, a "hustler," having little rest.
Virtually, his home was in the saddle ; he slept in it and ate
in it, seldom having any cooking utensils or anything in the
line of queensware. At night, when not on the march, the
earth was his couch, his saddle his pillow, and the sky his
canopy. If he had any flour he mixed it with salt and cold
water, plastered it on a board and set it before the fire to
62 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
bake, or he would wind the dough around an iron ramrod
and hold it over the fire. With the ramrod it was an easy
matter to broil a piece of meat. Coffee he had none, except
occasionally, when he captured a Federal wagon train. In
truth, this was one of the very reasons why he was improvi-
dent and lavish with his rations, when he had any. There
was ever the expectancy of a dash into a Federal camp or
train, where provisions were usually found in profusion.
When on a raid, into Kentucky, for instance, he took no
thought of the morrow. Kentucky was to him a land flowing
with milk and honey, where he feasted royally.
The Confederate cavalier was much of a free-lance — gal-
lant to the ladies, fond of basking in
" The light that lies
In woman's eyes."
When the " cruel war was over" there were few Kentucky
boys who did not " leave a girl behind him" in Virginia or
The cavalryman was usually ambitious to possess a good
horse, a Mexican saddle, a pair of big spurs, with bells on
them, a light, long-range gun, a brace of Colt's revolvers, a
good blanket, some form of oil cloth and a canteen of brandy
sweetened with honey. When he had these things, or some
of them, he was a merry fellow, ready to dash into battle,
singing " I'm so glad I'm in this army." As a rule, he was
fond of gay attire, his style being regulation cavalry boots,
a red sash, a large, black felt hat, of the slouch variety, with
the brim of one side turned up and pinned to the side of the
crown with a silver crescent or star, the whole surmounted
by a huge, black ostrich plume. About his other clothes he
was not very particular. The life he led enabled him to dress
much more stylishly, if not more comfortably, than the
infantryman. The government seldom furnished him with
clothes or arms, and never with horses. He was expected to
get all such things from the enemy — and, I may add, he gen-
erally did so. He was often dressed elegantly, not to say
gorgeously. Morgan's men undoubtedly dressed more ele-
gantly and comfortably than any other troops, their peculiar
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 63
service enabling them to do so. Terry's Texas Rangers wore
good clothes, were unrivaled equestrians, and dashed hither
and thither with a jaunty, devil-may-care, reckless abandon,
suggestive of the " wild and woolly west." The cavalry in
the Valley of Virginia operated extensively within the Fed-
eral lines, and I remember that the commands of Mosby,
General Lomax, General Rosser, General Bradley T. John-
son and others were often gaily attired, the black plume
being conspicuously numerous. It was not unusual to see a
private soldier better dressed than even his general. Many
officers were notably plain in dress, some wearing no insignia
of rank whatever.
The cavalryman enjoyed nothing more than a long raid
into the enemy's country, especially in late spring, summer
or early fall. The raid, of course, involved much hard
marching, loss of sleep, and often a great deal of fighting,
in a lively dashing way; but for all this the trooper was
compensated by " square meals " and the rich supplies of
clothing and provisions captured from the surprised enemy.
The Kentuckian always had a longing eye for the bluegrass
region, and was never so happy as when marching in that
direction. On those wild rides he had a " high old time,"
and enjoyed the constantly varying scenery. Summed up,
however, although there was much that was pleasant and
alluring in his life, the cavalier generally had " a hard, hard
road to travel."
64 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
East Tennessee Campaign — Events of 1863 — Telford's — Lime-
stone — Capture of the One Hundredth Ohio Infantry
" Hark ! hark ! comrades, a Federal drum !
And see ! invading squadrons come ! "
THE most important events of the war, during the
autumn of 1863, occurred in East Tennessee and
Georgia — the battle of Chickamauga, the siege of Chatta-
nooga, the decisive battle of Missionary Ridge, and Long-
street's desperate assault upon Fort Sanders, at Knoxville.
From Chattanooga to the Virginia line was one vast battle-
field, the fighting being fierce and continuous.
East Tennessee, noted for its adherence to the Union, is
said to have had thirty -one thousand men in the Federal
army, besides innumerable relentlessly cruel bushwhackers
who infested the mountains.
Here was the home of Andrew Johnson, afterward Presi-
dent of the United States ; of Horace Maynard, Parson
Brownlow and Thomas A. R. Nelson, prominent Union
leaders. Nelson was a noted lawyer, judge, orator and
statesman, not of the venomous temperament that character-
ized the others, and was of counsel for Johnson in the
celebrated impeachment trial. Nelson had a commodious
residence, some distance east of Knoxville, which I frequently
visited, and where I became acquainted with Mrs. Nelson and
family, excepting, of course, her husband, who was never at
home when we were in that vicinity. Mrs. Nelson was a
plain, sensible, refined lady, whom I hold in grateful remem-
brance for liberal hospitality and gentle, considerate kind-
ness shown me.
It was in this country that the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry
made much of its fighting record.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 65
When Burnside occupied Knoxville he sent the One Hun-
dredth Ohio Infantry Regiment on a reconnoissance, bv rail,
up the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad.
Colonel Giltner, with the Fourth Kentucky and School-
field's little battery, was temporarily attached to the command
of General Jackson, whom the boys facetiously called " Mud-
wall" Jackson in contradistinction to the immortal "Stone-
The Fourth Kentucky and the little battery met the Ohio
regiment at Telfords (a small station just below Jonesboro
and probably seventy miles east of Knoxville), September
9, 1S63. A brief but spirited engagement immediately
ensued, the enenn* falling back to Limestone Depot, the next
station below, there being a block-house fortification at that
In the fight at Telfords, Joe Johnson, of Trimble County,
Ky. . was killed ; Amos Frost was severely wounded in the
head, and James Xorth, bugler, was struck in the abdomen
\>y a spent ball, which did not penetrate the skin, but the
shock doubled him up as though he had a bad case of colic.
There were others placed hors de combat whose names I can
not recall. Captain Schoolfield's little batten,- here, as on
many other fields, did gallant and valuable service.
After some delay. General " Mudwall " being rather slow
and wavering, we followed the enemj- to Limestone, being
now reinforced by one or two small detachments of troops
and Lowry's battery The Federals were driven into the
woods in front of the block-house and around it, and when
we reached a plateau overlooking their position, General
"Mudwall," hesitatingly, began to make preparations to
attack them in front. Captain Bart W Jenkins, formerry
aid-de-camp to General Marshall, now a free lance voluntarily
doing staff duty, at this supreme moment dashed up to the
general and, in his rapid, impulsive manner, gesticulating vig-
orously the while, suggested that the artillery, with a small
support, should engage the attention of the enemy in front,
while the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, under cover of a wood-
land to the right, should march to their rear. I was much
impressed hy Captain Jenkins' manner as he unfolded his
66 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
plan, which was born of the inspiration of the moment, and
I was somewhat amused at the readiness with which the gen-
eral nodded assent to the captain's propositions. It was an
instance of a slow, inferior, vacillating mind being overshad-
owed and controlled by one inspired by the genius of war.
Captain Jenkins accompanied the regiment to the enemy's
rear, where a hot, close fight occurred, the enemy fighting des-
perately to break through our line to escape. This they were
unable to do; instead, they were driven and closely pressed
until many of them sought refuge in the block-house. After
a well-directed shot or two from L,owry's battery, the enemy
hoisted the white flag and surrendered unconditionally.
The One Hundredth Ohio Infantry was a fine regiment
of brave men, whom the fortune of war permitted to be
entrapped and overcome; the result of being caught too far
from their base.
The Fourth Kentucky boys appropriated to their own use
and benefit the new Enfield rifles with which the Federals
were armed, and abandoned forever the short muskets, shot-
guns and other nondescript arms they had heretofore carried.
The Enfield rifle, being a light, long-range gun, was a favorite
There were a number of killed and wounded, but I can
recall only the names of Albert Smith, a model Christian
young man, of Trimble County, Ky., killed; Oscar Coleman,
of the same county, severely wounded, and Wm. Bohon, an
accomplished young man from Harrodsburg, Ky., wounded.
This was the initial fight to what was to be a long campaign
of almost daily battle, until the lifting of the siege of Knox-
ville, and even then the Fourth Kentucky Regiment pro-
tected the rear of L,ongstreet's corps as it retired into Virginia.
KENTUCKY CA V ALTERS IN DIXIE. 67
East Tennessee; Campaign (Continued) — Battle oe
" Their warning blast the bugles blew,
The pipe's shrill port aroused each clan ;
In haste, the deadly strife to view,
The trooping warriors eager ran."
GENERAL BURNSIDE, fresh from the Army of the
Potomac, which he had commanded at the great bat-
tle of Fredericksburg, took possession of Knoxville early
in the autumn of 1863.
By command of Major - General Ransom, General Cerro
Gordo Williams had made a forced march toward Knoxville,
until he arrived at Blue Springs, in Greene County, Tenn.,
about seven and one-half miles from Greenville, and seven or
eight miles from Bulls Gap. Here we halted and sat down,
apparently waiting, Micawber-like, for something to turn up.
This was bad strategy, as the sequel proved. In the course
of a week the Federals " turned up," not only in our front,
but also behind us. The interim had been quiet and peace-
ful, the monotony only being broken by a predatory band of
the enemy, who captured a part of our wagon train. This
episode, in connection with the unnatural calm, was ominous.
We could only surmise ; we did not know the fact that we
were in an exceedingly dangerous predicament — liable to be
crushed between the upper and nether millstones, as it were.
Occupying a ridge stretching across the valley from either
side of the road, in the center, our position, however, was
naturally a strong one. The lower lands in our immediate
front consisted of open fields and dense woodland.
Burnside was in command of the Ninth Army Corps, and
had probably twenty thousand men in and about Knoxville.
Opposed to these, General John S. Williams, whom we gen-
erally called " Old Cerro Gordo," had, at Blue Springs, only
68 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
two small brigades of cavalry, commanded, respectively, by
Colonels Giltner and Carter, and sections of three batteries
of artillery. Giltner's brigade consisted of the Fourth Ken-
tucky Cavalry, Tenth Kentucky Cavalry Battalion and Tenth
Kentucky Mounted Rifle Battalion — about nine hundred
men. Carter's brigade was composed of the First Tennes-
see, Sixteenth Georgia and Peter's Regiment, numbering
probably eight hundred men.
It will be readily seen that General Williams had an
absurdly small force with which to attempt to fight or bluff
the hero (?) of Fredericksburg and the Ninth Corps d'Armee.
We were fully seventy-five miles from our base, with no sup-
porting force near.
On Saturday, October 10, 1863, probably between 9 and 10
A. m., the enemy attacked us. Old Cerro Gordo was now in
his element. His reputation for pugnacity and as a "stayer"
extended from Maine to the City of Mexico, and at the first
picket shot it became apparent that he meant to fight, and
that he would not abandon his position without a desperate
conflict. Such were his tactics ever. He never ran away so
long as he could get a man to stand. He went into a fight
storming and swearing; stormed and swore during the bat-
tle, and after the fight he swore all the same, in victory or
defeat. The general's disposition of the troops for ba*ttle
was soon effected. Colonel Carter occupied the ridge on the
right and Colonel Giltner the one on the left. A section of
Burrow's battery, commanded by Lieutenant Lloyd, a notably
gallant boy, occupied a commanding position on the right of
the road; two Parrot guns were on the left, and Captain
Schoolfield's unique little battery of flying artillery was also
advantageously posted, but could change position at a
moment's warning. General Williams and staff took posi-
tion near Lloyd's guns.
Within a very short time after the first picket firing the
battle opened fiercely all along the lines. The artillery
began a duel, which was kept up nearly all day. Occasion-
ally, however, the guns of both sides would shell the woods.
Shells from the enemy's guns would strike in front of our
batteries and ricochet over them and above our heads, gener-
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 69
ally exploding in our rear. One of Lloyd's guns was struck
and the lieutenant was painfully wounded in the arm. He
bandaged it with a handkerchief and continued to fight his
About ii o'clock I was sent with a message to General
Williams, and on my way thither I saw a strange flag and a
motley troop of reckless riders — the most dare-devil looking
ragamuffins I had ever seen. Many of them were barefooted,
but, nevertheless, they wore spurs. As far as I could see up
the road they were coming at a gallop, one by one, and as
each trooper came to the ordnance wagons he would come to
a sudden halt and demand some ammunition. Although it
was an irregular thing to do, in the absence of a regulation
requisition, James G. Owen, the ordnance sergeant, handed
out the cartridges, which most of the men put into their pock-
ets, as they had no cartridge boxes. One by one, as soon as
the ammunition was received, they would give a yell, and,
not waiting to close up, would gallop headlong down the
road, leading to the center of our lines, until they struck the
enemy, and by the firing I could almost tell when each of
them "got there." I soon learned that they were about one
hundred and twenty-five in number, and commanded by the
noted Colonel Witcher. Their battle-flag was in a dilapidated
condition, bearing many honorable scars. They were fresh
from the battlefields of Maryland and Pennsylvania, where
it was said they had been conspicuous as fighters and "cherry
pickers," climbing the trees and nonchalantly eating the fruit
while the storm of battle raged around them.
When Colonel Witcher arrived he dashed up to General
Williams and demanded to know if he could have a place
" in the dance " then going on. The bluff old general said,
' ' Certainly, sir, go right in ; " and he did "go in " with a vim.
When his men, one by one, struck the enemy they fought
like Spartans until they all got in line, and then with a mighty
yell they charged and actually drove the mass of Federals
in their immediate front some distance before overwhelming
numbers checked them.
Witcher's men composed the Thirty-fourth Virginia Bat-
talion of Cavalry. Having often heard of their " original
70 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
methods " and invincible fighting qualities, our boys heartily
welcomed their coming, and throughout the East Tennessee
campaign " Witcher's men " were favorites of the entire
division. They were good fellows to have around when we
were in a " predicament."
Opportunely there came another Richmond to the field.
Captain Bart Jenkins, with a small detachment, was at Rhea-
town, eighteen miles distant, and, hearing the cannonading,
hastened to Blue Springs, arriving in the afternoon.
General Burnside was on the field in person, commanding
fully six thousand troops, cavalry and infantry, with a full
complement of artillery, with large reserves at hand. Just
think ! The great Burnside, the man of sidewhiskers, ex-Com-
mander of the Grand Army of the Potomac, with the force
above enumerated, fighting Cerro Gordo and his seventeen
hundred men all day and failing to drive them ! Had the
conditions been reversed, the chieftain of Fredericksburg
would have been making quadruple-quick-time toward Knox-
ville within an hour.
As the battle progressed Burnside's forces appeared to aug-
ment, and we began to suspect that the greater part of the
Ninth Corps d'Armee was in our front. In fact, one of his
adjutant-generals, whom we afterward captured, said he had
fifteen thousand men on the field before night. To confront
this host General Williams was compelled to string out his
men until his little army was a mere skirmish line, nearly
two miles long. The dense masses of Federal blue, failing
to drive the thin line of Confederate gray, made several
attempts to turn our flanks, but each effort was an inglorious
failure. Thus the battle raged, the enemy utterly failing to
drive grim Old Cerro Gordo and his Spartan band.
About 5 o'clock p. m. Burnside, in desperation, resolved
upon a grand coup de main. Massing his infantry and artillery
he made a furious attack on our center. And what constituted
that center? Not more than one hundred and fifty men, com-
manded by Lieutenant-Colonel Ed Trimble, of the Tenth
Kentucky Cavalry. Our line being somewhat convex, Trim-
ble occupied the woods in the center, probably two hundred
yards in advance and to the right of Giltner's and other
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 71
battalions. Upon this little band the enemy concentrated a
deadly fire of musketry, supplemented by a hail-storm of
canister from short range. Trimble was forced to fall back
slowly by the right flank upon the remainder of Giltner's
brigade. These movements broke our line — separating Gilt-
ner from Carter — but both flanks held their positions intact.
The enemy, elated by his success in driving Trimble's hand-
ful of heroes, now treated us to a spectacular exhibition
magnificent to behold. The great host debouching from the
woods into the open fields, lines dressed in close array, drums
rattling and bugles braying, a sea of bayonets, shining guns
and gleaming sabers, challenged our admiration. With bated
breath every man involuntarily exclaimed: "Splendid! Mag-
nificent!" It now seemed that we would certainly be
overwhelmed. Not so. When the imposing array moved
forward our artillery thundered and small arms rattled. The
firing was phenomenally rapid, the booming of artillery one
continuous sound. The enemy went down in heaps; the
beautiful dress parade was broken. The shells from our
artillery, so rapidly falling and exploding in the midst of the
mass of blue, created consternation and panic. Lifeless
bodies strewn upon the plain and the groans of the wounded
changed our exclamation of admiration to one of pity. The
Grand Corps d'Armee, doubtless thinking that "h — 11 had
broken loose in Tennessee," incontinently turned and inglo-
riously fled toward a refuge in the woodland. A few brief
moments had wrought a wondrous change — from a pompous,
splendid advance to an inglorious, even comical, stampede.
I felt deeply sorrowful for the poor fellows left mangled and
groaning, deserted by their comrades in the open field, and
at this distance (thirty years) am moved to exclaim: "Bella!
bclla! horrida bella!"
It was now nearly night, and the enemy made no more
imposing demonstrations. The fight continued, however,
until dark, without any material change in the relative posi-
tions of the combatants other than that the enemy, by reason
of their superiority of numbers, were slowly, but surely, out-
flanking us and gaining our rear.
When night dropped her sable curtain down the firing
72 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
ceased, our troops retaining their position, not daring, how-
ever, to build fires. We had lost probably one hundred men,
while the enemy's loss must have been very great. Many of
their killed and wounded fell into our hands. Neither men
nor horses had had anything to eat since the early morning,
and, as the sequel proved, we were destined to make a long
march and fight three battles on the morrow (Sunday) before
we should have an opportunity to break our fast or rest our
General Cerro Gordo Williams and his little division of
cavalry and artillery, had they never engaged in any other
conflict, could rest their fame upon the issue of that day
(Saturday, October 10, 1863), 'and be content with the laurels
won at Blue Springs.
At nightfall General Williams went to Greenville to com-
municate by telegraph with General Wm. H. Jones or General
Lying in line of battle it soon became evident that the
enemy was not idle. They were gradually investing our
position — digging rifle-pits within speaking distance of our
front and swinging around our flanks. We marveled that
General Williams should leave us in that precarious position.
But Old Cerro Gordo never did learn when or how to retreat.
Conscious of the vast numbers of the enemy, and of our own
disparity of force, every man felt that captivity would be his
fate should the troops remain there all night. The lines were
so close that the combatants could distinctly hear one another
when talking in an ordinary tone.
Colonel Giltner, the senior officer in command during the
absence of General Williams, resolved that, orders or no
orders, he would not needlessly sacrifice his men. He sent
for Colonel Carter, and, being present, I heard them, in low
tones, discuss the situation. Colonel Giltner did most of
the talking, pointing out the undeniable fact that by morn-
ing our position would be environed by the enemy, and that
a stampede or capture would be inevitable. He finally arose
to his feet and said: "Colonel Carter, you may do as you
please, but there is no commandant in this army who can
compel me to sacrifice my men by uselessly holding them
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 73
here all night. They may court-martial me, but I care not.
I am going to take my men out of this trap." Carter was
passive, and quietly assented to all that Gilter said, agreeing,
also, to take the responsibility of withdrawing his brigade.
Frank Darling and I, and probably some one else, were sent
to inform the several subordinate commanders of the con-
templated movement. The men were cautioned to make no
noise, and, like the Arab, we had soon folded our tents and
silently stolen away.
74 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
East Tennessee Campaign (Continued) — Battle of Henderson's
" And still three cheers for the boys in gray!
For, whether they lived or whether they died,
The South by their valor is glorified."
FROM Blue Springs we moved slowly and quietly on to
Greenville, where we found General Williams, who
appeared somewhat displeased at the movement; but he
knew Giltner, and when that imperturbably cool officer
boldly told him why he had withdrawn the troops from Blue
Springs, the general seemingly became reconciled to the
situation. He ordered us to continue the retrograde move-
ment until we should reach Henderson's Mill, several miles
east of Greenville, and there to go into camp. Alas! we
were to march all night and fight another battle at daylight,
before reaching that camp. Without knowing it, we were
still in a trap. Before General Williams had finished tele-
graphing from Greenville the wires had been cut — a sus-
picious circumstance. It apparently had not occurred to any
one that while we were fighting at Blue Springs a large force
of the enemy had taken another road and gone to our rear.
The Yankee is an inventive genius and knows how to invent
and manufacture traps and many other things ; but some of
his traps are defective and do not always hold the animal
that unwittingly walks into them, and this trap did not prove
strong enough to hold Old Cerro Gordo and his weary, but
We moved toward Henderson's in the following order:
General Jackson, with about five hundred infantry, having
come up and joined the division, now marched in advance ;
Carter followed Jackson, and Giltner's brigade protected the
rear. Thus we marched all night, momentarily expecting
Burnside's cavalry to dash into Giltner's column.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 75
At dawn, Sunday, October nth, an unseen foe fired upon
Jackson. As the enemy was concealed behind trees in the
dense woodland that bordered the road, it was at first
thought that no more formidable foe than a band of bush-
whackers was in our front. We were then about two miles
from Henderson's. Jackson advanced to drive the supposed
bushwhackers from the wood, and immediately received a
furious volley from the unseen enemy. . Temporarily there
was some confusion, the darkness of the early morning and
the shelter of the woodland interposing a somber veil
between our troops and the foe. There was no longer doubt
that a Federal force was intercepting our retreat, and the
dullest mind realized that we were in a" critical predica-
ment." The overwhelming host we had fought at Blue
Springs was in our rear, and here were blue-coats, we knew
not how many, in our front. Horrible visions of a captive's
life in a gloomy Northern prison loomed before us, making
the prospective dark and depressing. However, our boys
opened fire in gallant style, and the artillery galloped up,
rapidly unlimbered, and began shelling the woods.
Old Cerro Gordo came promptly to the fore, storming and
swearing, and ordered Jackson and Carter to charge. This
they did impetuously, driving the enemy persistently. Cerro
Gordo, like a veritable god of war, waved his sword on high
as he led the van, cheering the boys, storming and raging.
He swore at the Federals and at the Confederates " in one
time and two motions." Adjutant-Generals E. O. Guerrant
and H. T Stanton and Capt. Bart. Jenkins were con-
spicuously valiant, cheering the troops and assisting the
general in many ways. The enemy tried to use their artil-
lery, but after firing a few rounds they were pressed so hotly
and driven so rapidly that their guns " were kept on the
jump," not having time to turn and unlimber. The somber
clouds of despair now showed a silver lining, and visions of
prison life rapidly vanished.
The enemy had fought quite stubbornly for a brief time,
but being unable to withstand the impetuous onset of the
boys in gray, they broke and wildly fled. They had no time
to carry off their dead and wounded, but with the cry of
76 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
" sauve qui petit" they stampeded and skedaddled, apparently
making no effort to rally. They ran about three miles, our
boys "whooping 'em up," until, turning to the left, they
forsook the main road and went toward Kingsport, still exe-
cuting the quintuple quickstep. The fight was over by 8
o'clock, the losses being inconsiderable on both sides,
especially when we consider the closeness of the range and
the amount of ammunition expended. For the most, part,
however, it was a running fight, the conditions not being
favorable for accurate aim. We captured ten or fifteen
prisoners, some of them belonging to the Fifth Indiana
The engagement at Hendersons Mill was a brilliant affair
on the part of the Confederates, but must have been
extremely humiliating to the Federals. Their force, com-
manded by Colonel Foster, consisted of four regiments,
aggregating at least twenty-five hundred men — nearly double
our number. Besides, they knew that Burnside, with the
greater part of the Ninth Army Corps, was in our rear, and
that fact should have inspired them to make a better fight.
However, General "Williams' promptness in ordering a charge,
and the dash, desperation and impetuosity of his men,
demoralized the Federals at the start, causing the close
proximity of Burnside to count for nothing.
The road being cleared, we emerged from the trap and
moved on toward Rheatown, where we expected to go into
camp, obtain food for ourselves and horses and enjoy a much
A prominent and noticeable officer among the Federals
that morning was Colonel McKee Dunn. He commanded, I
think, the Fifth Indiana Cavalry. Throughout the campaign,
and during Longstreet's investment of Knoxville, McKee
Dunn and his gray horse were familiar figures. He was as
brave as Marshal Ney, and challenged the admiration of our
boys when, for nearly a month, he would almost daily coolly
and intrepidly ride up and down his line, in easy range of
our Enfields. By common consent the boys agreed that so
gallant an officer ought not to be killed.
A ludicrous incident occurred during the fight. Captain
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 77
Jake Yeager, commissary of the Fourth Kentucky, encount-
ered a Dutchman and ordered him to surrender. The
Teuton could not see it in that light and exclaimed : '' Py
dam, you surrender your ownself ! " They argued, threatened
and "demonstrated" until Yeager, out-bluffing him, finally
"took the Dutchman in."
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IX DIXIE.
East Tennessee Campaign (Continued) — Battee of Rheatown —
PUGHS HlLE — BlOUNTYIEEE — ZOLLICOFFER — ABINGDON— RE-
VIEW — Reorganization*.
" Sons of the South ! There's a victory sweet,
That comes to the brave in the ranks of defeat."
HAVING had neither food nor rest since the commence-
ment of the engagement at Blue Springs, men and
horses were hungry and wear}' when the}- arrived at Rhea-
town about 10 o'clock a. m.
Instead of a calm and restful observance of Sunday, the
tranquillity of which had been broken by the clash of arms
at Hendersons Mill, we were destined to pass the entire day
amid the smoke of a conflict — the most desperate, the most
horrible day we had yet spent in the war. There is a limit
to human endurance, and our little band had, apparently
reached that limit, when the booming of cannon, the hurt-
ling of bombs and solid balls, suggested an olio or overture
before the rising curtain, revealing another scene in the
theater of war ; another act in a realistic play to be per-
formed on that fateful Sunday.
A strange scene in war ! Troops going into camp, wagons
parked and horses being unbridled and fed, while the enemy s
cannon were roaring and sending shrieking shells over our
heads, and solid balls ricocheting through the encampment.
When we arrived at Rheatown, the enemy, moving on our
left flank, had taken possession of a gap in the ridge oppo-
site the town, and a dense woodland, extending from the
base of the ridge to our position, effectually hid them from
view. Under cover of their artillery in the gap, and sheltered
by the woods, they were moving upon us all the time we
were going into camp. Carter's whole brigade, not yet
having gone into camp, were on their horses in the road,
when the enemy suddenly fired upon them from the margin
of the woods.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 79
General Williams was storming about the erection of his
tent, while the cannon balls were flying over his head, and
when the Federals came swarming through the woods. The
going into camp under such circumstances was inexplicable — -
beyond our comprehension. Being at the general's head-
quarters while the tent was going up, and wondering what it
all meant, I heard a cavalryman inquire of a comrade:
" What in h — 11 does all this mean — going into camp in the
presence of the enemy?" The other fellow nonchalantly
replied, " Strategy, my boy, strategy! " To which number
one rejoined, " Strategy, h — 11 ! "
Viewing the surroundings with an untrained military eye,
I unreservedly indorsed the cavalryman's emphatic expres-
sion, it being evident that instead of resorting to a ruse de
guerre, the general was playing a game of bluff and bravado.
To even a mediocre mind it was a situation in which discre-
tion would seem to be the better part of valor. We ought
to have moved on as rapidly as possible, consistent with order
and dignity. We were forced to move at a double-quick-
step, later in the day.
It is difficult to write a description of this battle of Rhea-
town. It had no shape. It was a tempest — a hurly-burly.
In the language of Victor Hugo, it was the " quid obscurzim
of battles. Where infantry was, artillery arrives ; where
artillery was, cavalry dash in ; the battalions are smoke.
There was something there, but when j f ou look for it, it has
disappeared. To paint a battle, those painters who have
chaos in their pencils are needed. Rembrandt is worth more
than Van der Meulen; for Van der Meulen, exact at midday,
is incorrect at 3 o'clock. Geometry is deceived, and the hur-
ricane alone is true, and it is this that gives Folard the right
to contradict Polybius. It is not given to any narrator, how-
ever conscientious he may be, to absolutely fix the form of
that horrible cloud which is called a battle." While this is
true of all battles, it is particularly applicable to Rheatown.
There was no plan, but much of folly, confusion and despera-
tion ; courage of the highest type and panic indescribable ;
a continuous roar ; fire and smoke everywhere ; groans, death,
physical exhaustion, despair. It seemed that we were in
80 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
the tartarean region, and that there was no escape. All
wished for night, but the day seemed interminable.
There was much confusion before the battle began, while
we were going into camp. Some of the men even refused to
dismount, while others ventured into the adjacent fields to
procure corn for their horses. Before many of them returned,
bullets began to whiz through the camp ; the men dropped
their corn and quickly mounted their horses. The Federal
artillery, having gotten the exact range, threw shot and
shell into the disordered ranks, while masses of blue-coats
debouched from the woods, and the whole visible earth
seemed suddenly to assume a cerulean hue. Rifle balls came
thick and fast. A part of Carter's brigade became panic
stricken and dashed wildly to the rear. Adjutant-General
Guerrant, not having time to saddle his horse, mounted him,
bareback, and dashed after the stampeded Georgians and
Tennesseans, overtook them, and eloquently appealed to
them to return. In connection with Colonel Carter and
other officers, he succeeded in stopping and dismounting two
or three hundred of them, whom he led back in an endeavor
to check the enemy until the remainder of the troops could
be placed in position, and the wagons be gotten out of the
\V H. Bradley and John James McCann, of the Fourth
Kentucky, in charge of the wagon train, used excellent
judgment and did heroic service in extricating the wagons
from imminent capture.
Notwithstanding the reign of pandemonium and the
seriousness of the situation, there were laughable scenes,
even here. Captain Yeager's commissary wagon, driven by
Tom Hopkins, came to grief just as Tom was flourishing his
whip and giving the admonitory " Git up ! " to his mules.
A cannon ball, striking the coupling pole of the wagon, cut it
in twain, but Tom hurriedly drove on with the front wheels
and a part of the wagon bed, losing however Captain Yeager's
sevent3 T -five dollar boots and other valuable paraphernalia.
At the beginning of the fight, a young woman, with the
curiosity of her sex, visited the wagon rendezvous, and being
unused to war's alarms, sat down beside Will Bradley, who
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 81
chivalrously exerted himself to entertain her. The tete-a-
tete was rudely dissolved by a bomb-shell that struck in close
proximity to the trysting place, and caused a wild and undig-
nified stampede on the part of the fair one, leaving Bradley,
like the last rose of summer, to bloom alone.
Giltner's brigade was quickly in position on the left, as
was Schoolfield's battery of four little guns. Graham's and
Lloyd's sections of artillery had gone down to the railroad,
nearly a mile away, with General Jackson, and had not yet
arrived on the field. The fighting became hot and furious.
Carter being forced back on the right, and a flanking column
of the enemy appearing on Giltner's left, made it necessary
to fall back to a more advantageous position. A number of
men, dispirited, straggled to the rear.
We now had not more than eight hundred to one thousand
men with which to fight General Shackelford's division of
cavalry, a brigade of infantry and twenty pieces of artillery.
After severe fighting our somewhat disordered lines again
fell back to a better position, a commanding eminence known
as Pughs Hill, about two and a half miles from Rheatown.
This position commanded all approaches on the center, but
it could be easily flanked by an enemy with superior numbers.
Our men, being dismounted, had withdrawn from their former
position to this, sullenly and in good order. At Pughs Hill
was fought the main fight of the day. It was the third
engagement — long, desperate and wearisome.
When the enemy again approached, our artillery, being
admirably handled, gave them a warm reception. The enemy
also served theirs well, one of their shells killing and wound-
ing several artillerists and horses. The Federal infantry and
cavalry recoiled, temporarily, before the well-directed fire of
Graham's, Lloyd's and Schoolfield's guns.
Unfortunately, at this critical moment, it became necessary
to change commanders. With Colonel Giltner and staff I
rode to where General Williams had taken position near a
section of artillery. The general was reclining on the
ground, apparently quite sick, but swearing awfully. He
held his unsheathed sword in his hand, was mad as a hornet,
and although hors de combat, was as bellicose as ever.
82 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
Colonel Giltner assumed command, temporarily, and when
he saw the whole division was in imminent danger of being
overwhelmed and captured, he made heroic efforts to with-
draw the men from the field. He ordered the horseholders
to remain where they were until the men could get to them.
This was a necessary precaution, because many of the men
were stampeding and there was danger of the horseholders
becoming infected with the panic and being swept to the
rear by retreating horsemen.
The First Tennessee and the Sixteenth Georgia, of Car-
ter's brigade men naturally brave but lacking in discipline,
had been somewhat demoralized since the first guns were fired
at Rheatown. They finally broke and stampeded. Would
that I could drop the curtain and shut out the whole horri-
ble, indescribable scene ! They went like a hurricane, through
fields and over fences, carrying everything before them.
Their horse-holders ran away, and horses riderless and riders
horseless ran headlong through Giltner's column of horses,
stampeding many of them. Giltner's men hurriedly threw
down the rail fences on either side of the road, in order to
get into the adjacent fields and thus escape the awful mael-
strom of destruction. General Williams now appeared among
the panic-stricken men, and, with his sword striking right
and left at them, stormed and swore in vain. Other officers
with waving hats and swords valiantly supplemented the
general's efforts, but all were powerless to check that awful
torrent of human fear. Brave men they were; but when
once stampeded men lose all reason — the lions become kids.
The Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, being on the extreme right
and farthest from the horses, seemed doomed to capture.
They were fighting overwhelming numbers in their front and
on their flanks, while battalions were rushing to the rear and
running off their horses. That heroic regiment, Major Tom
Chenoweth's Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles, Colonel Trim-
ble's Tenth Kentucky Cavalry and Witcher's battalion
steadfastly remained firm, and even when sullenly and
obstinately retiring, they would occasionally charge the
enemy. Captain Schoolfield and his twenty-five gallant
young men, with the little battery, galloped from position to
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 83.
position, wheeling their guns and often checking the enemy.
Witcher, brave, immortal Witcher, calling to his men,
" Fall in here, nighthawks ! " formed them in the open field
to the right of the road, and charged the enemy, pell-mell,
checking them until the Kentucky boys could reach their
horses. All hats off! All honor and never-fading laurels to
gallant Colonel Witcher and his invincible " nighthawks."
Our loss was severe. The Fourth Kentucky alone lost
forty or fifty men, killed, wounded and missing. Of the
missing, Captains Ray and Gathright afterward joined the
command, having walked sixteen miles. A number of miss-
ing men also turned up all right — somewhat disfigured, but
still in the ring. Captain Sam Duncan and Dick Strother
were among the captured, and Pete Malloy was left on the
field, supposed to be dead. These three belonged to Com-
pany E, Fourth Kentucky Cavalry. A splendid soldier, an
athlete, had his head torn off by a cannon ball. He belonged,
I think, to Captain Alexander's company. He was noted
for amiability and for his singing. Possessing a deep bass
voice, he was wont to arouse the Fourth Kentucky boys by
singing, "Awake, awake, ye drowsy sleeper," in the early
morn before Tom Hayden sounded reveille with his bugle.
In the closing scenes of the fight I noticed Buck Lacefield,
of Captain Barrett's company, Fourth Kentucky, fall in line
with Witcher's men, his mouth wide open, jelling and charg-
ing the enemy Buck was one of the bravest of the brave,
and among the last to leave the ill-fated field.
The enemy's loss must have been great. A prisoner
stated that they lost sixty men at Hendersons Mill. As our
men fired deliberately and at close range, their losses must
have been proportionately much greater at Rheatown and
We had fought four engagements without food, rest or
sleep, and still we were compelled to march. The retreat
continued to Jonesboro, thence across the rapid Watauga
River and on to Blountville, the enemy following slowly and
There was an inconsequential engagement at Blountville,
General Wm. E. Jones being in command of the cavalry
84 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
In this fight Adjutant T. M. Freeman was shot in the neck,
but not seriously. He tied his handkerchief about the wound
and continued to gallop up and down the line of the Fourth
Kentucky, cheering and leading the men into the most dan-
gerous places. As usual, the enemy flanked the position,
compelling General Williams to concentrate his entire force at
Zollicoffer, whence he continued the retreat to Abingdon, Va.
The Federals destroyed the long railroad bridge, two or
three locomotives, a number of cars and the old pine log fort
at Zollicoffer. The locomotives were worthless, and the fort
was such only in name. The bridge, however, was a valuable
We arrived at Abingdon about October 16th, and General
Williams, having received reinforcements, determined to
fight another battle. The position was an admirable one.
The batteries of Burrows, Lowry, Otey and Lewis were
posted on four high hills, commanding all approaches in front.
It was known that the Federal cavalry, under Shackelford,
consisting of Wolford's, Carter's, Foster's and Wells' brigades
and twenty-five pieces of artillery, was approaching, and
that a strong force of infantry was in supporting distance.
Witcher and his " nighthawks," bringing up our rear, fought
them almost continuously. We had five or six thousand
men at Abingdon, and were prepared to give the enemy a
warm reception, but when within six miles of our position
they suddenly retreated, going in the direction of Cumber-
A day or two after the enemy had gone we had an impos-
ing array of generals to view us, review us and command
us — Major-General Ransom, Major-General Sam Jones, Brig-
adier-Generals Wharton, Wm. E. Jones, Jackson and
General Ransom, commanding the department, reorganized
the cavalry. To General Williams were assigned the Fourth
Kentucky, First Tennessee, Sixteenth Georgia, Chenoweth's
and Trimble's battalions, Slemp's Refugee regiment and
Schoolfield's battery. General Wm. E. Jones was given a
brigade, consisting of the Eighth Virginia Cavalry, a fine
regiment, Witcher's battalion, Peters' regiment and other
detachments, whose names I do not remember.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 85
General Ransom — General Wm. E. Jones — General John S.
Williams — General Geo. B. Crittenden.
WAS a North Carolinian and a " West Pointer ; " a
martinet and a strict disciplinarian, crabbed and
imperious. He had a fine martial appearance, and — a fond-
ness for persimmon beer. His curt, domineering manner,
and the issuance of an order prohibiting officers and soldiers
from entering the homes of citizens, uninvited, made him
exceedingly unpopular. His idea was to treat volunteer
troops the same as regulars.
General Wm. E. Jones
Was an eccentric officer, who seemed to take pleasure in
self-torture, as if doing penance.
At a point near Bristol, Tenn., I was sent to him with a
message and found him lying on the ground, face downward,
in a tent filled with smoke from a smoldering fire in the
center. I involuntarily drew back. In muffled tones the
general called to me : "Lie flat down and the smoke won't
hurt you." I dropped upon my hands and knees, crawled to
him and delivered the message — about as ludicrous and undig-
nified a scene as one could well imagine.
General Jones had served with Stonewall Jackson, and
rode a little, trotting clay-bank mare, to which he was much
attached. He said the famous Stonewall had ridden the
unpretentious-looking animal in the battles of Harpers Ferry,
Sharpsburg and Second Manassas. He was a small man,
beyond middle life, exceedingly plain in dress, brave to afault,
cool and imperturbable. He was killed, shot through the
head while charging the enemy, hat in hand, at Piedmont, Va.
86 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
General John S. Williams
Was a rough-and-ready fighter, but no strategist. He had
made himself famous for bravery at the battle of Cerro Gordo,
Mexico, and has ever since been known as Cerro Gordo
Williams. He was a man of splendid physique, bluff but
genial and pleasing in manner, generally popular with officers
and men who served under him, but had a faculty of incurring
the disfavor of his superior officers. He was severely criti-
cised for his management of the East Tennessee campaign,
and especially for his conduct at Rheatown. His proud spirit
could not, and would not, endure the innuendoes and criti-
cisms emanating from department headquarters and from a
few of his own officers. Consequently, he issued the following
Headquarters Williams' Cavalry Brigade,
November 4, 1863.
Fellow-Soldiers : I have asked to be temporarily relieved from
the command of this brigade, because my honor would not allow me
to retain it longer.
It is unnecessary for me to recite the reasons which have impelled
me to take this step.
My association with you has been short, but full of stirring events.
The patient endurance and devoted courage you have shown in one
of the most trying and difficult campaigns of this or any other war
command my highest admiration and endear you to me by one of the
strongest of human ties — that of sharing common hardships and a
I hope it may not be long until I am with you again ; but whether
the separation be temporary or final, I shall ever cherish in kindest
remembrance the many evidences of generous confidence you have
John S. Williams, Brigadier-General.
We all knew that the address was a valedictory, and that
it meant final separation. The men regretted it very much —
all having a warm place in their hearts for genial, hard-fight-
ing General Williams.
The general took service with Wheeler, I think, and we
saw him no more until, unexpectedly, we met him in the
early morn of the battle of Saltville, a year hence.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 87
General George B. Crittenden.
For a brief time the brigade and division were commanded
by General George B. Crittenden, during the East Tennessee
campaign. I remember that he had us drawn up in line of
battle, near Zollicoffer Bridge, expecting an enemy who failed
to appear in any consequential force. I do not think we
fought any engagement of consequence under General
General Crittenden was a small man, genial and courteous,
a trained soldier, plain in dress and unostentatious in manner,
often thoughtful and abstracted as if pondering deeply some
military problem. I remember that I felt profoundly
respectful when in the presence of General George B.
88 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
East Tennessee; Campaign (Continued) — Battle of
Bid Creek, November 6, 1863.
" Each soldier's name
Shall shine untarnished on the roll of fame,
And stand the example of each distant age,
And add new luster to the historic page."
COLONEL, HENRY L,. GH/TNER, now commanding
the brigade, soon became restive and inclined to rebel
against the iron rule of General Ransom. Always somewhat
refractor}', those of us who were nearest to him and knew
him best were not surprised when he threatened to follow
General Williams' example and resign, rather than obey the
mandates of the grim martinet, Ransom. In fact a number
of high-spirited Kentucky officers soon incurred the general's
displeasure, and his edicts became more and more offensive.
Finally, Colonel Tandy Pryor, commanding the Fourth Ken-
tucky Cavalry, roundly and vehemently abused Major Branch,
chief of Ransom's staff, and, of course, was ordered under
The brigade was again in Tennessee, General Ransom's
headquarters being at Blountville. On the morning of
November 4th the general, desiring a conference with Gilt-
ner, had to send for him two or three times before the daunt-
less colonel condescended to honor the summons. He was
much mollified, however, when he found that the general
was contemplating a forward movement, his plan involving
the capture of a Federal force at Rogersville. It was known
that Colonel Israel Garrard was at that place with the Seventh
Ohio Cavalry, the Second Tennessee Mounted Infantry and
a battery of artillery. The plan was for General Wm. E.
Jones to march south of Holston River and gain the enemy's
rear, while Giltner should attack in front.
On November 5th the brigade moved to a point below
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. SO
Kingsport, going into camp for a short time, late in the
afternoon. It was raining — cold, dreary, disgusting Novem-
ber weather. Just before dark we began crossing the Holston
River in the following order : First Tennessee, Tenth Ken-
tucky Cavalry, Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, Lowry's battery,
Sixteenth Georgia, Sixty-fourth Virginia — about one thou-
sand fighting men.
It rained nearly all night, and was dark as Erebus. The
crossing of the river was difficult and dangerous. Men got
lost in the darkness, and notwithstanding the order for abso-
lute silence, they would shout the names of lost comrades,
and bedlam reigned generally Horses fell down, men were
rolling in the rapid stream, some were badly injured, and
nearly all, for the time being, were sorry they had ever left
the old Kentucky home to join the cavalry. We were delayed
by General Jones' brigade, sixteen hundred strong, crossing
our road, he having found his original route impracticable.
He now intended to go to Rogersville, on the flank and in
rear of the enemy, and it became necessary for Giltner to
delay in order to give Jones time.
Before daylight our advance met a company of scouts near
Surgoinsville and chased them several miles toward Rogers-
ville. They, of course, warned the enemy, who doubtless
were not expecting a visit from us on such an inclement
The dawn of day revealed the enemy posted on a high
and strong position. Not many were in sight, but we sus-
pected that the whole force was masked in the timber, or
concealed behind the ridge. Our artillery, which had gotten
far behind on account of the darkness and bad road, was
ordered up, but before it arrived the enemy disappeared.
The brigade moved rapidly forward, and, to our astonish-
ment, we found the enemy crossing the river at Russells
Ford. Their wagons and artillery lined the road. Giltner
ordered Colonel Carter with the First Tennessee to double
quick across the fields to cut off the retreat. The movement
was successful and the enemy returned to their original
position on the hills beyond Big Creek. They, however,
left two pieces of artillery, with a strong support, on our
side of the creek, which promptly opened upon our advance.
90 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Major Parker, with the Fourth Kentucky, and Colonel
Trimble, with the Tenth Kentucky, came to the front at a
gallop, dismounted within three hundred yards of the belch-
ing cannon, and charged. Carter, who had cut off the retreat
at the ford, was on the flank of the guns, and he also charged
them, and, I think, he reached them first. However, all
were there in briefer time than it takes to tell it. Of course
the guns were captured, as was also a large number of wagons
parked in Russell's lot. The teamsters had run away, and
the mules, uncontrolled, were charging and running into
each other and colliding the wagons, many of them being
wrecked. The wagons were loaded with commissary, quar-
termaster and ordnance stores. The brigade, scarcely halt-
ing, charged the main body of the enemy and their artillery,
posted on a commanding elevation beyond Big Creek, a
broad, deep and rapid stream. Notwithstanding the fire of
the enemy our troops never halted until they were within
the Federal lines. After a sharp fight of probably a half
hour, the Fourth Kentucky captured the battery and about
five hundred prisoners, with arms, horses, wagons, etc.
Most of the prisoners belonged to the Second Tennessee
Mounted Infantry, the Seventh Ohio Cavalry having, for the
most part, escaped at the ford. Major Clark, with the Six-
teenth Georgia, while pursuing those who had escaped
captured many prisoners. We captured in all about six
hundred — one major, seven captains, one adjutant-general
and many minor officers. Their commander, Colonel Gar-
rard, thinking discretion the better part of valor, escaped hy
leaving the field with the Seventh Ohio Cavalry at the first
Immediately after the surrender the boys scattered over the
field, looking for spoils, and found, in profusion, blankets,
guns, pistols, sabers, clothing, camp equipage, etc. Probably
fifty loaded wagons were captured and brought out. Two or
three disabled caissons and a number of damaged wagons
were cut down and burned. We lost only three men killed
and four or five wounded. The enemy lost about fifteen
killed and thirty wounded, and some were drowned in their
frantic attempt to cross the river. Adjutant-General Guer-
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 91
rant and Sergeant-Major Frank Harrison paroled the
wounded. There were sad scenes on the field. Dead and
wounded neglected, horses shot dead at hitching posts or
rolling in agonies of death ; others whinnying wistfully for
food and drink. When we started back nearly every soldier
was leading a horse, some leading two.
General Jones never got into the fight at all. However,
he did good service; the Eighth Virginia Cavalry of his
brigade gained the enemy's rear and intercepted about two
hundred fugitives. The general also captured small detach-
ments in Carters Valley, making a total of about eight hun-
General Ransom issued the following complimentary
Headquarters Department Southwest Virginia and
Beountville, November 10, 1863.
[General Orders, No. 10.]
It is with pleasure that the major-general commanding announces
to the troops the successful attack of our cavalry upon the enemy at
Rogersville, Tenn., on the 6th inst., resulting in the capture of eight
hundred prisoners, four pieces of artillery, four stands of colors,
sixty wagons, one thousand horses and mules, small arms, ammuni-
tion and other valuable stores, with a loss of only three killed and four
or five wounded.
The major-general commanding offers his heartfelt thanks to the
officers and men engaged, and hopes that this brilliant exploit will be
the earnest of continued and substantial success in the future.
By command of
F. Rowland, A. A. G.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
A Literary Symposium.
AT brigade headquarters was a coterie of literati, com-
posed of Major Henry T Stanton, Captain Edward 0.
Guerrant, Lieutenant Henry T. Anderson, Captain Barney
Giltner and Captain J. J McAfee — classical scholars, poets,
critics, etc. All of them were staff officers, refined, fastidious
in dress, and when assembled about the bivouac fire they
usually engaged in the discussion of some literary topic,
often edifying and amusing. Of course there was a diversity
of genius and talent, which made the symposium the more
Major Henry T. Staxtox was the poet pre-eminent,
and like all poets he had his moods. At times he was so
abstracted that he neither knew nor recognized his intimate
friends; in fact he became oblivious to allsurroun dings. Seat-
ing himself at the mess-table he would toy with his knife and
fork, forgetting to eat a mouthful. These were sure symp-
toms of a forthcoming poem, the advent of which we all
awaited with pleasurable expectancy, carefully refraining
from breaking "the spell that bound him." He wrote a
great deal; many of his productions abounding in pathos,
while others were light, airy and witty. Of the latter, one
"string of verses " in particular amused not only his own
coterie, but was recited and sung and laughed over by the
boys of the entire brigade. The command had captured a
rich Federal wagon train, and, as usual, the boys appropri-
ated to their own use everything they could lay their hands
upon. General Wm. E. Jones, in command at the time,
issued an order that mules, coffee, sugar and other " spoils
of war " should be turned over to his quartermaster as Con-
federate States property, to be distributed, probably, among
troops who were strangers. This order caused a vigorous
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 93
"kick" and an indignant howl all along the lines, and
inspired Major Stanton to write the " funny " verses referred
to. I can now recall only the concluding line of each
" General Jones, here's your mule."
Like nearly all "literary fellows," Major Stanton was
extremely careless about financial matters. If he had money
he would spend it, not seeming to realize its value. When
the poetic afflatus was not dominating his being he was one
of the jolliest, most companionable of men, and notably
fond of fine clothes, flowers and pretty girls.
Captain Edward 0. Guerrant was the most religiously-
inclined member of the quintet, although he was sparkling
in conversation and fond of society. He was a voluminous
prose writer, and also wrote and quoted a great deal of
poetry. His vocabulary seemed to be co-extensive with an
unabridged dictionary, and with ease and facility he con-
structed sentences containing the purest gold of the English
language. His conversational powers were unrivaled —
fluent, didactic, oratorical, witty and pathetic. I herewith
append a stanza of one of his effusions, which comprised five
" Who is this lying in a spot so lone,
Without a monument or even a stone
To tell to the stranger and passer-by
Who it is that slumbers here so quietly ?
No sweet-scented roses, no sister's sad tear;
No green arbor-vitse to bloom all the year ;
Not even a coffin, a shroud, or a sigh.
All unwept and unhonored the stranger doth lie.
Only a soldier! "
Lieutenant Henry T. Anderson was a cold, cynical
critic, but withal a pleasant young gentleman who had been
reared among educators and all his life had breathed the atmos-
phere of the classics. His father was principal of an academy
at Paris, Ky., his home, and his uncle, Henry T Anderson,
was principal of a noted institution of learning at Harrods-
burg, Ky., a famed preacher and author of a translation of
the New Testament, in which he invariably uses the word
94 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
immerse, instead of the word baptize. Lieutenant Anderson
was often a combatant when discussing some linguistic nicety,
and was always tenacious of any position he assumed. As a
dialectician he was probably the superior of the other mem-
bers of the staff, whom he would frequently startle by assert-
ing some unorthodox proposition, and then he would proceed
coolly to lay down his premises, and, nonchalantly, though
logically, to draw a conclusion which left them in breathless
amaze and incapable of refuting-his audacious assumption. He
was a medium-sized young man, of conservative habits and
scrupulously particular in matters of dress and personal clean-
liness. He was the inspector-general of the brigade — a dar-
ing and efficient officer.
Captain Barney Gii/Tner, tall, well formed, blonde com-
plexion, exquisitely attired in a captain's full dress uniform,
his linen always immaculately clean, was the wit of the quin-
tet and also a philosopher. He was aid-de-camp to his
cousin, Colonel Giltner. His home was at or near Versailles,
Ky. , where he had been reared in aristocratic affluence, and
true to his training and surroundings he was essentially a
patrician to whom the provincialisms and uncouth manners of
the plebeian were peculiarly disgusting. Being well educated,
refined and of luxurious habits, he was much of a sybarite,
ill-adapted to the rough-and-tumble life of a Confederate
cavalryman. His quaint sayings, apropos quotations, witti-
cisms and songs enlivened many a dreary bivouac hour. He
lost no opportunity to bask in the smiles of some Virginia or
" And frame love ditties passing rare,
And sing them to a lady fair."
At times, when the menu was poor in quality and limited
in quantity, the weather unpropitious and his clothes spotted
with unavoidable plebeian mud, his splenetic observations and
comical facial expressions were so irresistibly ludicrous that
the laugh went around, and everybody for the time being
forgot his discomforts and tribulations. There was a marked
contrast between his own appearance and that of his horse.
Previous to coming into his possession his chestnut sorrel
CAPT. JOHN J. M'AFKE.
KENTUCKY CA V ALTERS IN DIXIE. 96
charger was fat, sleek and handsome, but by reason of con-
tinued neglect he became emaciated and wretchedly forlorn,
and to make matters even worse some vandal had clipped his
foretop locks and cut his tail " short and square." Thereafter
the horse was known as " Bushwhack." Captain Guerrant,
whose own horse was always carefully groomed, asked Giltner
why he did not curry " Bushwhack," and received for reply :
" Good God ! Ed, it would ruin my clothes."
Captain John J. McAfee. An intellectual young gen-
tleman of attractive personality, a smooth, fluent talker, lull
of humor and a ready writer was Captain John J. McAfee,
adjutant-general of General George B. Cosby's brigade. He
was also war correspondent for a Richmond newspaper, his
contributions being literary gems, valuable in information
and often intensely interesting by reason of their effervescing
humor. Captain McAfee was fastidious in all things and of
aristocratic tendency. Withal he was a bon vivant. When
rations were short he had a ludicrous habit of placing his
hands upon his stomach, and with a far-away expression in
his eyes, saying, "My stomach feels heated and unsatisfied-
like." Because of his genial temperament and warm, rosy
complexion he was nicknamed " Ginger." There was much
in common between him and Barney Giltner, they being boon
Soon after the war Captain McAfee married Miss Nellie
Marshall, the brilliant daughter of General Humphrey
96 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Stampeding Wolford's Cavalry.
" To horse ! to horse ! the sabers gleam ;
High sounds our bugle call."
IF there existed a body of Federal troops that the Kentucky-
boys dreaded to meet, it was gallant General Frank
Wolford's famous Kentucky command. They had the repu-
tation of being invincible fighters, almost uniformly success-
ful in their numerous conflicts. Our boys frequently dis-
cussed the probability of meeting that heroic band of Ken-
tucky warriors, and speculated much as to the result of a
conflict with them. All knew it would be Greek against
Greek, Keutuckian' against Kentuckian. I have forgotten
the date and place, but it was during the East Tennessee
campaign, in the autumn of 1863, that the long expected, if
not hoped for, contest took place. Candor compels me to
admit, however, that Wolford's boys scarcely had a fair show.
Early one morning, learning that there was a troop of
Federal cavalry encamped a few miles in our front, Colonel
Giltner determined to attack them forthwith, not knowing,
however, that it was Wolford's cavalry. Detaching two squad-
rons of the Fourth Kentucky, the one commanded by Lieu-
tenant Robert Alexander, of Company B, and the other, I
think, by Captain Dick Gathright, of Company H, the
colonel ordered one of them to the left of the road and the
other to the right ; both squadrons were to march in parallel
columns, some distance from the road, and considerably in
advance of the main column, the object being to turn the
enemy's picket post, and surprise and capture the picket
guard, and thus prevent, if possible, the enemy from being
apprised of our approach. The plan succeeded beyond our
most sanguine expectations. Alexander and Gathright went
headlong into Wolford's camp, along with the pickets, and
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. '.)1
the main column, yelling like Comanches, soon caught up
with the advanced squadrons and charged pell-mell through
the camp, literally running over the surprised Federals. An
indescribable melee followed, the enemy being so astonished
and demoralized that they seemed to have one thought — that
of getting away Never was there a more complete rout,
and we have always wondered what became of the enemy.
Although we were right among them, in their camp, we took
few prisoners. Probably our own men were too much excited
and forgot their business. The Federals scattered helter-
skelter in every direction, and seemed to hide and disappear
with the instinct and facility of young quails. The boys were
very proud of this victory They had attacked Wolford's
cavalry and vanquished it, signally, completely What the
result might have been, had the two opposing Kentucky
forces met in a fair, open field, of course no one knows. All
is fair in war, and we were extremely fortunate in " getting
the drop ' ' on Wolford that morning. The Fourth Kentucky
Cavalry never more dreaded to meet Wolford's Kentuckians,
and, in fact, never did meet them again. General Frank
Wolford resigned his commission when Lincoln issued his
Emancipation Proclamation, and, after the war, became a
member of Congress.
98 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
General Longstreet in Tennessee — The Siege of Knoxville —
Assault Upon Fort Sanders — Minor Infantry and Cav-
" Through the sounding -woods there come
Banner and bugle, trump and drum."
GENERAL LONGSTREET and his veteran army corps,
covered with scars and carrying tattered red battle-
flags, had come from sanguinary Eastern battlefields to rein-
force Bragg at Chattanooga. Having fought with the West-
ern troops at Chickamauga, defeating Rosecrans, the veterans
of the East turned their faces toward Knoxville, and after a
sharp engagement at Campbells Station, where the gallant
Federal general, W- P Sanders, only twenty-eight years old,
was killed, General Longstreet began to besiege General
Burnside at Knoxville, November 15, 1863.
Longstreet's environment of the city was so complete that
it seemed to be merely a question of time when Burnside, cut
off from his supplies, would necessarily be forced to capitulate.
Hood's division of infantry was stationed at a point whence it
could readily move upon Burnside, should he attempt to
retreat. Our cavalry was kept busy guarding and watching
the numerous roads, intercepting supply trains, etc. Cavalry
fights were of almost daily occurrence, and the infantry lines
had so closely invested the Federal works that skirmish firing
was almost incessant. Finally General Longstreet deter-
mined upon making an assault, and several consultations were
held as to the most vulnerable point in the enemy's works of
General Longstreet, who always rode over his battlefields,
" His line to marshal and to range,
And ranks to square and fronts to change,"
says that on the night of November 25th, in company with
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. M
his engineer, he made a reconnoissance of the entire Federal
position, and concluded to assault Fort Sanders. There was
a ditch at the base of the fort, about which the Confederates
had some misgivings, but the leading officers finally agreed
that the ditch would not offer any serious obstacle to a rush
upon the fort. Strange mistake ! The ditch proved to be
" a horrible pit." General Longstreet himself says he saw a
man " march out of the fort, down the ditch and up the
other side ; " that the ditch seemed to him to have been made
more for the purpose of getting dirt than for making of it an
obstruction. It was reported to General Longstreet by officers
on the outposts that they had seen dogs pass over the same
General McL,aws, who made the assault, says in his official
report: " Before 4 o'clock on the morning of November 29th
I went around with my staff to superintend the execution of
my orders for the assault. It was evident to me that the
enemy was aware that one was intended, and I think it prob-
able they knew where it was to be made, for while I was
talking to Colonel Ruff, on the railroad, the enemy threw a
shell, which burst over the woods just in rear of us, through
which Colonel Ruff's command (Wofford's brigade) was pass-
ing, assembling by regiments for the assault. I have since
heard that the enemy were informed, and that during the night
of the 28th they had been employed in pouring buckets of water
over the parapet to render it difficult to ascend, the night
being very cold. The commands being in position and in
readiness, and the sharpshooters having been directed to open
fire all along their lines as soon as it was light enough to aim,
I distributed my staff officers along the line and rode over to
Major L,eyden's battery and to General Kershaw's line, and
found Major I,eyden waiting until it was light enough to see
his elevators and Kershaw's line ready. I gave Major Leyden
orders to open fire while I was there, and then rode toward the
assaulting columns. As I went they could be seen advancing
in fine style. I rode straight to Wofford's brigade, on the
left, and as I approached the work found the men falling
back, the officers reporting that it was impossible to mount
the parapet and that the brigade commander, Colonel Ruff,
and his next in command, Colonel Thomas, had been killed,
100 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
and the next in command wounded. I rallied the brigade
about four hundred yards from the work, reformed the regi-
ments in the order they went to the assault, notified them who
was their brigade commander and the regiments who com-
manded them, and then consulted with Generals Humphreys
and Bryan, and finding that it was useless to attempt to take
the work I reported to General Longstreet, and asked author-
ity to withdraw my command. Permission was given, and
the main body was withdrawn, but the advanced line of pits
was held by the sharpshooters. When it was seen that Wof-
ford's brigade could not mount the parapet General G. T
Anderson's brigade, of Hood's division, came rushing up to
the assault, in the same place where my command had
attempted it, but was repulsed at once and retired."
General McL,aws further says : " The assault failed because
of the state of the weather on the night previous to the assault
and the night of the assault, it having rained on the night of
the 27th, and then, turning cold, the parapet was hard frozen
and a heavy ice crop was formed by the moisture from the
bank, which prevented the men from obtaining a foothold,
and the absence of a berme from which they could mount
and start. The main cause of failure was, however, the slip-
periness of the parapet, upon which it was impossible for
any large body of men to gain a foothold, and the severe fire
from the north side of the fort, which drove the men from the
most accessible points of assault. And, I may add, that it is
the opinion of distinguished officers, who were engaged in
the assault, that if the skirmishers on the railroad side of the
work had silenced the enemy's fire coming from that side, as
it was silenced by my line of sharpshooters, the work would
have been carried in spite of all the other obstacles. I do not
think that ladders would have been of material assistance,
unless they could have been furnished in great numbers and
had been twenty feet long. The reconnoissances were alsa
defective, giving false notions of the character of the work
and of the ditch."
Captain Benjamin, who had charge of the Federal artillery
in the fort, said that if the attack had been made at any other
point than upon Fort Sanders it must have been successful.
Colonel Poe, Burnside's engineer, who directed the building
1 IP I
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 101
of the fort, says that no bastion in the works was completed
except the one assaulted by McL,aws. He further says that
the ditch that had to be crossed by an assaulting column was
twelve feet wide, and in many places eight feet deep.
General Burnside says in his official report: " At about
6:30 a. m. the enemy opened a furious fire upon the fort ; our
batteries remained silent and the men quietly awaited the
attack. In about twenty minutes the cannonading ceased and
a fire of musketry was opened by the enemy. At the same
time a heavy column that had been concentrated under the
ridge, near the fort during the night, charged on the bastions
at a run. Great numbers of them fell in passing over the
entanglements, but the weight of the column was such as to
force the advance forward, and in two or three minutes they
had reached the ditch and attempted to scale the parapet.
Our guns opened upon the men in the ditch with canister,
and our infantry shot or knocked back all those whose heads
appeared above the parapet. The forces placed on the flanks
of the fort had a cross fire on the ground over which the
enemy approached. Most of those who reached the ditch
were either killed or mortally wounded. Such as could not
retreat surrendered, in all about five hundred. The ground
between the crest and the fort was strewed with dead and
wounded, who were crying for help, and after the repulse
was fully established, I tendered the enemy a flag of truce
for the purpose of burying the dead -and caring for the
It will be seen that the wire entanglements on the open
ground did not retard the advance of the assaulting troops,
General Burnside testifying that the run from the crest to
the fort was made within two minutes. The Confederates
lost about one thousand men, while Burnside claims that
only twelve of his men were killed. The Federals, them-
selves, say that it would have been almost impossible for
men to ascend the parapet even if it had been undefended.
Burnside's engineer, under whose direction the fort was con-
structed, in his official report says of the fort: "It is a
bastioned earth-work, built upon an irregular quadrilateral;
the sides are respectively one hundred and twenty-five yards
southern front, ninety-five yards western front, one hundred
102 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
and twenty-five yards northern front and eighty-five yards
eastern front. The eastern front was entirely open ; the
southern front was about half done ; the western front was
finished except cutting the embrasures, and the northern front
was nearly finished. Each bastion was intended to have pan
coupe. The bastion attacked was the only one that was com-
pletely finished. A light twelve-pounder was mounted at
the pan coupe and did good service. The ditch of the fort
was twelve feet in width, and in many places as much as
eight feet in depth. The irregularity of the site was such
that the bastion angles were very heavy, the relief of the
lightest one being twelve feet. The relief of the one attacked
was about thirteen feet, and, together with the depth of the
ditch, say eleven feet, made a height of twenty feet from the
bottom of the ditch to the interior crest." A great many
men were killed in the ditch by bombs which the enemy
threw over the parapet, by hand.
Mr. Pollard, the Southern historian, says of this daring
assault : ' ' Never, excepting at Gettysburg, was there in the
history of the war a disaster adorned with the glory of such
devout courage as L,ongstreet's repulse at Knoxville."
The defeat of Bragg at Missionary Ridge, and the march
of Sherman to the relief of Burnside, made it necessary for
General L,ongstreet, December 2d, to raise the siege of Knox-
ville, which he did by withdrawing his forces in the direction
of Blain's Crossroads* and Rutledge, east of the city.
During the remainder of the winter there were numerous
sharp contests east of Knoxville, in which Longstreet's
forces were almost uniformly victorious. In nearly all of
these conflicts Giltner's cavalry were actively engaged, either
in advance or covering the rear. Cavalry skirmishes were
of daily occurrence, and so familiar did the opposing cavalry
become with each other that they could almost invariably tell
whom they were fighting. The Federals always recognized
the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, and when the fight had
opened they would exclaim : " There's, that d — d Fourth
General L,ongstreet and his grande corps d'armee returned
to the Army of Northern Virginia early in the spring of 1864.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IX DIXIE. 103
THE unique little batten,* commanded bj- Captain J. J.
Schoolfield was invented by a man named Williams, of
Covington, Ky., who went to Richmond early in the war and
induced the Confederate Government to cast a battery of six
guns. This was the only batten- of the kind, I think, in the
Confederate army During much of the war it was attached
to our brigade, and the twenty -five young men who manned
it intimately affiliated with the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry
The names of a majority of the batten- membership are to be
found on the muster-roll of Captain Bart Jenkins' company.
It was a small breech- loading gun, the breech being thrown
out by a spring, when the gun was discharged, thereby per-
mitting a current of air to pass through the long barrel, which
had a tendency to keep it cool while being actively worked.
It carried a one pound solid ball, but upon occasion it did
effective sen T ice at short range when loaded with buckshot
and half-ounce ball cartridges. The gun could be fired about
forty times a minute, and being mounted upon a light car-
riage it could be run from point to point by hand. The little
batter5 T often did great execution, and the Federals were fre-
quently puzzled to know the character of artillery they were
On one of the inconsequential raids into the mountains of
Kentucky Colonel Tom Johnson took one of the little guns
with his battalion, but I do not think any of the regular bat-
ten-men accompanied it. While encamped somewhere near
the Big Sandy River, in a narrow valley, flanked by high
mountains, a noted Union partisan, named Patrick, entered
Johnson's camp at night and stole the gun away. Patrick
told me of the circumstance since the war, and said he was
like the man who drew the elephant — that he did not know
what to do with the gun after he had captured (?) it. The
104 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
incident was the occasion of much amusement to Federals and
Confederates. Some months afterward, while the little bat-
ter}- was encamped in Virginia, Colonel Tom Johnson, riding
by, could not resist the temptation to say something " funny ''
and sarcastic about the guns. Accosting John Fish, one of
the cannoneers, he said : ' ' You had better keep your eyes
on those guns or some woman may slip into camp and carry
them off." Fish, who did not know the colonel, replied :
"Oh, we are not uneasy. The only man in the army who
would permit such a thing is Old Tom Johnson, and he is not
in command here."
In one of the battles in Tennessee, I can not remember the
name of the place, the battery signally distinguished itself.
I think General George B. Crittenden was in command, and
that the fight occurred just before General John S. Williams
took command of us. We had been falling back for several
days, skirmishing nearl}- all the while, until we reached the
point referred to, when Captain Schoolfield was ordered to
take position on a little hill on the right, in a valley, and
await the coming of the enemy. The remainder of the com-
mand moved back nearly a mile in rear of Schoolfield 's
position, leaving his battery dangerously exposed and unsup-
ported. Why the battery was left isolated on the outpost I
never knew nor understood. The gallant youths with the
guns made a frail fortification of fence-rails and grimly waited
for the Federals, who soon appeared in strong force. A hot
fire was immediately opened on both sides, and a close and
deadly combat ensued, which lasted probably an hour.
Schoolfield, unsupported, held his position until he was
flanked, and the enemy in front charged almost to the muz-
zles of his guns. In fact the enemy in front had to cease
firing for fear of killing their own men, who were on the
flanks and trying to surround the battery. The men had to
run their guns off the field by hand, as no horses could have
lived to get to them. Even then the battery would have been
captured had not a part of the Fourth Kentucky gone to the
rescue. The Fourth Kentucky boys met the guns just as
Schoolfield had succeeded in getting them beyond the brow
of the hill, probably one hundred and fifty yards from the
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 105
enemy. The batterymen were so exhausted that they could
do nothing more, and the boys of Company E, Fourth Ken-
tucky, took hold of the guns and rushed them down the hill.
Lieutenant Archie Smith was in command of the detachment
of Company E, and he and his men not only had to handle
the guns, but they had to assist Schoolfield and his exhausted
men off the field. The enemy continued to press them until
one of our larger batteries on a hill in the rear opened on
them and checked their advance.
As soon as he had gotten his battery out Schoolfield went
to headquarters, where he received a compliment he will
never forget. When he entered the house Major Parker was
sitting on the only chair in the room. He immediately
arose, saluted and requested Captain Schoolfield to be' seated.
The captain declined, but the major insisted that he should
take the chair, saying that the gallant commander of the bat-
tery was the only officer in the command who had now a
right to a seat in the chair that day.
Bud Peters, an adopted son of Judge Peters, of the Ken-
tucky Court of Appeals, an exceedingly promising youth of
Schoolfield' s little command, was drowned in Nola Chuck y
River, which the battery was crossing on its way to Green-
ville, Tenn. With uncovered head I salute Captain
Schoolfield and his gallant young artillerists.
106 KENTUCKY CA V ALTERS IN DIXIE.
Captain Bart W. Jenkins and His Troopers.
" He was a stal worth knight and keen,
And had in many a battle been ;
His eyebrow dark and eye of fire,
Showed spirit proud and prompt to ire ;
Yet lines of thought upon his cheek,
Did deep design and counsel speak."
CAPTAIN BART JENKINS, "manly, bold and tall,"
generous and impulsive, was a military genius. As
intimated in another chapter the victory at Limestone must
be ascribed to Captain Jenkins, who suggested the strategical
maneuvers, and to the dash and hard fighting of the Fourth
Captain Jenkins was naturally a leader, never a follower of
men. He usually managed to keep his gallant troop
independent and free from entanglements with other bat-
talions. His little command, however, was frequently
attached to the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, and his troopers
were gladly received in any camp and their banner greeted
with joyous acclaim on the battlefield,
For they were clansmen, bold and true,
Their chief as brave as Roderick Dhu.
Captain Jenkins, always alert and a free rover, beaded his
horse in the direction of the enemy's guns, often dropping
into a fight unexpectedly, but at an opportune time.
Early in the war Captain Jenkins, with twenty-eight men,
Nathan Parker one of them, started from Lusbys Mills,
Owen County, Ky., for the Confederate lines, and overtook
Giltner and Pryor at Munfordsville, where he joined forces
with an officer who was recruiting the " Buckner Guards."
Captain Jenkins was influential in having Pryor elected first
lieutenant and Nathan Parker second lieutenant, Jenkins
himself and Giltner enlisting in the " guards " as private
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 107
soldiers. Jenkins, however, was soon detached to drill new
organizations, constantly forming. Soon thereafter General
Simon B. Buckner appointed him chief of secret service, at
the same time ordering him to select suitable men to send on
secret service missions. Giltner was one of the men whom
he selected, Jenkins personally undertaking the most delicate
and dangerous mission — that of visiting Lebanon, Ky., where
rested the left wing of the Federal army. When he returned
from a successful performance of that service and reported to
General Buckner, at Bowling Green, he found awaiting him
a first lieutenant's commission, which had been forwarded by
the secretary of war. He was then ordered to report to
General Humphrey Marshall, General Buckner permitting
Giltner to accompany him.
When in June, 1862, General Marshall was ordered to
Richmond, to meet in council General L,ee and other officers,
Captain Jenkins, then aid-de-camp, accompanied him, and
served on the staffs of Generals Hood and Magruder during
the seven days' fighting around Richmond. He was with
General John B. Magruder during the desperate and sangui-
nary battle of Malvern Hill. For his gallant services in those
great battles Jenkins was given a commission as captain of
cavalry, with authority to recruit a company, a battalion, a
regiment or a brigade, and was to be permitted to report for
service in any department of the army that he should prefer.
It was under that authority that Giltner, Pryor and Parker
were enabled to visit Kentucky to recruit the Fourth Ken-
tucky Cavalry Regiment. Captain Jenkins, however, at the
earnest solicitation of General Marshall remained on that
officer's staff until he resigned his commission in the army
and was elected to the Confederate Congress.
The generals around Richmond, recognizing Captain Jenk-
ins' o-enius in war, admitted him to their councils, notably
just before the battle of Mechanicsville, the first of the seven
In the closing days of the war Captain Jenkins and his
" little army " fought a desperate engagement in Richmond,
Va. which the captain thinks was the last battle fought on
Virginia soil by organized troops.
108 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
The following incident illustrates this superb cavalier's
dauntless courage : Before leaving Kentucky for Dixieland
a detachment of Federals, probably a company of ' ' Home
Guards," led by a United States provost marshal, undertook
to arrest him near his home in Henry County. They were
well armed and boasted of their prowess and determination to
capture the haughty and fiery Southron. Captain Jenkins
made no effort to elude them. On the contrary, while the
Federals were drawn up in line for some purpose, the gallant
Jenkins, unattended, suddenly appeared on the scene, and
with his bridle in his teeth and a revolver in each hand he
deliberately rode the full length of the enemy's line. He
uttered no word, but his cool audacity and flashing eves
effectually quelled the Home Guardian war spirit — not a man
of them daring to molest him.
Jenkins' troops represented various Kentucky localities,
many of them having been connected with the ' ' little bat-
tery. ' ' For the most part they were young men of culture —
gentlemanly, accomplished representatives of the best families
in Kentucky The " roll-call " was in part as follows :
B. W Jenkins, Captain. J. O. Bush.
J. J. Schoolfield, First Lieutenant. Bussell.
Cloud, Second Lieutenant. James Caldwell.
Augustus Wood, Third Lieuten- James Carnes.
ant. Wm. Carnes.
Charles Hawkins, First Sergeant. Charles Case.
Wm. Alanson, Second Sergeant. Wm. Case.
Granville Buzzard, First Corporal. Robert Coleman.
Campbell O'Xan, Second Corporal. Charles H. Colvin.
George S. Adamson, Quartermas- Levi Colvin.
ter Sergeant. Lloyd Corlis.
George R. Woods, Farrier. Clark.
Robert Anderson. Wm. Everett.
Mark Asbury. Lewis Frazee.
John Ashcraft. Thomas Frazier.
Lewis Ashcraft. Charles Gill.
Wm. Alexander. Samuel Gosney.
D. Brainard Bayless. Henry Hamilton.
James Berry. Vincent Hamilton.
Good Bohannon. Wardner Hamilton.
Robert Breeze. Joseph F. Hamilton.
Harrison Browning. Charles L. Holton.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
Evan T. Howard.
Charles H. Lee.
Wm. A. McDonald.
Wm. W. Macdonald.
Wm. T. Marshall.
James W. Morford.
George V. Payne.
Lewis C. Pope.
H. Clay Skurvin.
C. Columbus Stevens.
H. P. Willis.
There are others whose names should be appended to this
" Roll of Honor," but I am unable to obtain them, and the
lapse of time has obliterated from my memory many gallant
fellows whom I knew.
A number of names on the foregoing list are especially
memorable and deserving of the decoration of the ' ' L,egion of
Honor. ' ' Frank Miller, clerk at brigade headquarters ; Phares
Weis, assistant orderly officer, captured at Mt. Sterling and
died in prison, were conspicuous for their accomplishments —
brave, dashing boys.
John Whallen of L-ouisville, Wm. Longmore, H. P. Willis
and Brainard Bayless were superbly brilliant youths, model
soldiers, graceful courtiers in an}' society
110 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Doctor Sam S. Scott — Adjutant Freeman — Sergeant-Major
Harrison — Captain George T. Atkins — Captain George T.
Campbell — Captain Warren Montfort — Lieutenant-
Colonel Clarence J. Prentice— Dr. George S. Whipple.
Dr. S. S. Scott.
PROBABLY no other officer of the Fourth Kentucky
Cavalry or of Giltner's brigade so fully realizes that
thirty years have faded away since the flag was furled at
Appomattox, and that the actors in the panoramic scenes of
1 861-5, who survived the unequal contest, are swiftly crossing,
the last river as does the regimental and brigade surgeon,
Major Sam S. Scott, who is now an octogenarian — the waters
of the silent river laving his feet. Major Scott was a surgeon
of considerable skill, and when a battle was raging he was
abreast of the front rank, attending to the wounded and
alleviating the agonies of the dying.
His was a tall, rather slender and somewhat stoop-shoul-
dered figure, clothed in a black frock coat, with a major's gilt
star decorating the collar. His intellectual face wore a cynical
smile. He had said that he did not intend to have his long
gray hair cut until the Confederacy should have gained its
independence. He coiled his hair in a knot and tied it at the
base of the skull, a la the fashion adopted by the women of
Doctor Scott was an educated, accomplished gentleman,
and knew much of men and affairs. He was an intense
Southern partisan, and being fond of adventure had been a
member of the ill-starred Lopez expedition to Cuba. His
thrilling description of the fate of young Crittenden and com-
rades made a more lasting impression upon my boyish mind
than all the history I had ever read of that fateful enterprise.
It was a delight to hear him talk of Theodore O'Hara, soldier
and poet, author of the immortal poem, " The Bivouac of the
Dead." The doctor's wife was a near kinswoman of O'Hara.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. Ill
Doctor Scott, riding his fine gray mare with long, flowing
white mane, and his little son, Charlie, probably not more
than fourteen years old, who rode a beautiful black pony,
were familiar figures on all marches and battlefields. In
addition to the doctor and his son was another well-known
person, Bob Hudson, fiddler and factotum. Now, of course,
the doctor was entitled to a " headquarters wagon," in which
to store his tent, cooking utensils, surgical apparatus, medi-
cine chest, etc. The medicines generally consisted mostly
of quinine and brandy, and the boys annoyed the doctor no
little by pretending to be sick and demanding a modicum of
brandy. When refused they would sometimes make a silent
raid on the wagon at night, and imbibe copiously of the liquor
while its guardian, Bob Hudson, was sleeping the sleep of the
innocent. Poor Bob had a hard time, as the irascible doctor
would ' ' cuss " him roundly for permitting the boys to steal
the " medicine."
Upon one occasion when General John C. Breckinridge,
his adjutant-general, Colonel J- Stoddard Johnston, and other
members of a brilliant and aristocratic staff were visiting the
brigade, Doctor Scott invited them to his quarters and made
their "mouths water" when he announced that he had
several gallons of "mountain dew," which he could recom-
mend as good medicine, and he forthwith prescribed that they
must all " take something for their stomachs' sake." But,
alas ! the boys had again outwitted Bob Hudson, and the
genial host was obliged to make the humiliating confession
to General Breckinridge that he could not deliver the goods,
and I think the general regretted the situation even more
than the doctor.
At another time Captain Shuck Whitaker, at the midnight
hour, deployed, a line of skirmishers and moved upon the
doctor's wagon, and putting Allen Quinly, the driver, and
one or two guards to ignominious flight captured a whole
barrel of spiritus frumenti, and effected one of the most
masterly retreats known in the annals of war.
The doctor was a scientific checker-player, and fond of
hearing the bands play, " Hell's broke loose in Georgia."
112 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Adjutant Terah M. Freeman.
The adjutant of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry was at first
the most unpopular officer in the regiment, but improved
wonderfully on acquaintance, and became as popular as he
had been unpopular. He came to the regiment a stranger,
and having much to do with the drill and discipline of the
men he made himself so obnoxious that, almost without
exception, they absolutely hated him; threats and mutterings
against him becoming so common that it was thought he
would not survive the first battle, it being predicted that
some one of our own men would shoot him. But presto,
change ! it only required that first battle to win for him the
fealty and admiration of the entire command. His gallantry
and military knowledge made officers and men realize that
his severe " training school " was for their own benefit, and
opened their eyes to the importance of military discipline.
Adjutant Freeman had taken them in hand when they were
" raw and green," and it required heroic measures to bring
their proud spirits under that submission so necessary to the
efficiency of soldiers. I doubt that there was a better adju-
tant in the army.
Lieutenant Freeman was reared at or near Frankfort, Ky.,
and was an educated and rather aristocratic young officer, a
martinet in army regulations, giving ready obedience himself
and exacting it of others.
His personal appearance was somewhat remarkable — a
slender, symmetrical body, of medium height, a wealth of
long, black, curly hair, smooth, beardless face, fine, clear-cut
features and always scrupulously well attired — his appearance
was strikingly feminine and withal handsome. His manner
and martial bearing, however, were the opposite of effemi-
nacy. The most wonderful thing about him was his voice-
Whenever he formed the regiment on " dress parade" and
gave the command, " Right dress ! " every soldier heard him.
It was a marvel how such a strong, resonant voice could
emanate from that slight, girl-like figure. It was a delight to
see him on dress parade, with precise militarystep, gracefully
marching up and down the line he was forming, his saber
KENTUCKY CA VAL1ERS IN DIXIE. 1 1 3
clanking with musical rhythm to his movements and to hear
that ringing stentorian voice of command and to witness the
grace with which he saluted the commanding officer when
announcing that the parade was formed.
Lieutenant Freeman was undoubtedly a better tactician and
more thoroughly conversant with the book of Army Regula-
tions than any other officer in the regiment or in the brigade.
His services were invaluable to the commanding officer, and
to him the regiment owed much for its fame as an exception-
ally well-drilled and disciplined body of volunteer troops.
Marshal Ney is said to have been " the bravest of the
brave," but it is difficult to conceive how any soldier could
be braver than Adjutant Freeman. An illustrative incident
has been referred to in a previous chapter. He was fond of
taking a man or two and penetrating within the enemy's
lines for the purpose of acquiring information and of capturing
some unwary Federal who might have strayed away from
base. Upon one of these daring expeditions, near Tazewell,
Tenn., he captured a courier, and with him a portfolio
belonging to a Federal adjutant, in which were love letters
and the picture of the Federal officer's sweetheart. Free-
man wrote him a courteous note and sent it with the letters
and picture and his compliments by special flag of truce.
Sergeant-Major R. Prank Harrison — Headquarters
Mess No. 2.
The adjutant is an indispensable officer to any command.
His duties are exacting and must be promptly and correctly
performed. Adjutant Freeman and Sergeant-Major Harrison
were each peculiarly well equipped to perform the duties of
the adjutant's office.
Major Harrison, when he enlisted as a private soldier, was
a young man of lively, rollicking disposition, somewhat
reckless. He would sing gay songs, make merry over the
flowing bowl, manipulate the " pasteboards " and — in fact
was a merry, jolly, all-around, happy-go-lucky sort of a fel-
low. But the instant he was appointed sergeant-major of
114 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry there was a marvelous change.
Appreciating the dignity and responsibilities of his new
position he forsook all frivolities and dissipations, and
became at once a model, dignified officer. Often for days,
weeks and months, in the absence of the adjutant, he per-
formed all the duties of the office as efficiently as when Free-
man was present.
In face, contour of head and bearing Major Harrison bore a
striking resemblance to General John C. Breckinridge.
Before I was transferred from regimental to brigade head-
quarters I belonged to what the boys called " Headquarters
Mess No. 2," composed of Major Harrison, Frank Darling, Tom
Hayden and myself. Frank Darling, nephew of the colonel,
and I were acting in the capacity of orderlies to the com-
manding officer, and Tom Hayden was the bugler, hence it
was necessary that our mess should always be near that of
the colonel. Our mess had rather an unsavory reputation.
None of the members would assist in the preparation of a
meal if he could in any way avoid it. Each possessed an
inherent antipathy to the vocation of " hewers of wood and
drawers of water."
When in camp and lucky enough to have any rations to
cook Harrison almost invariably suddenly remembered that
he had important business with the adjutant, always complet-
ing the business, however, in time to put in an appearance at
the frugal board when the meal was ready, and his appetite
was also generally in approved normal condition. After
awhile the rest of us " kicked," and broke up the mess, each
fellow going to the quarters of some friend, and remaining
until his welcome was worn out, which was usually a very
brief time. We would then come together again, each agree-
ing to do his part in the culinary line. Upon such occasions
when the boys of the regiment perceived smoke again ascend-
ing from our tent the cry would run through the encampment,
" Reorganized ! reorganized ! " Alas ! it was only a tempo-
rary reorganization. The greatest trouble seemed to be that
each fellow was afraid he would do more work than the
other fellows did. We were amiable, genial comrades, save
when it came to cooking, and then there was no congeni-
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 115
ality whatever. Bach had a special department assigned
him. Tom Hayden was to prepare the meat, I was to knead
the dough, Frank Darling was to cook it, and the sergeant-
major, with a canteen or two, was expected to skirmish for
water. There was almost always a hitch somewhere — the
bread was a failure, the meat was burned or the " skirmisher
for water " most ignominiously failed to " show up " at the
critical moment, when water was urgently necessary in the
culinary business. As a result the mess was continually dis-
organizing and reorganizing.
At opportune times Major Harrison had an amusing, dra-
matic way of quoting an expression from Shakespeare which
readily "pointed a moral or adorned a tale." There existed
a current feeling among officers and men that had Major
Harrison been invested with the power and authority of
exalted rank he would have been as much of a martinet and
as strict a disciplinarian as the most rigid " West Pointer."
This impression obtained because of the thorough manner
in which he performed the duties of the office he then held.
He was captured during Morgan's last raid into Kentucky,
at Cynthiana, Sunday morning, June 12, 1864, and was held
a prisoner at Johnson's Island until the close of the war.
Captain George T. Atkins.
One evening during Bragg's occupancy of Kentucky, I was
the bearer of a message from General Marshall to his wife
and daughter, Miss Nellie, whom I found at the Phoenix
Hotel, Lexington. When I left the parlor and went into
the rotunda of the hotel, I found a brilliant array of well
dressed, handsome Confederate officers engaged in animated
conversation. One officer, wearing an elegant uniform, the
more conspicuous because of a voluminous red sash about
his waist, immediately attracted my attention. He talked in
a louder tone than the others, and a peculiarly nonchalant,
devil-may-care manner emphasized his presence.
Of this man I was destined to see much during my service
in the Confederacy. He was a New Yorker, a trained busi-
ness man, who had drifted South and joined the Confederate
116 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
army. Probably thirty years old, of medium size, compactly
built; his eyes and hair were black, and, withal, he was a
handsome man. He became quartermaster of the Fourth
Kentucky, and there was no better quartermaster in the
Confederacy. The duties of that office were arduous, and
the manner of keeping the books was so complicated, that
none but an educated business man could fill the office
efficiently. He possessed many other accomplishments,
among them being that of drawing maps of the country
where the troops were operating.
Although the quartermaster was not expected to go into
battle, the gallant captain was frequently found in the " thick-
est of the fray," notably, in the desperate battle at Saltville,
where he recklessly and conspicuously rode up and down the
lines, seemingly determined to get himself killed.
Captain Geo. T. Campbell,
The commissary of the Fourth Kentucky, was one of the
most popular officers in the regiment. He was a quiet,
sensible man, of wide information, kind of heart, and ever
on the alert to see that his department had sufficient
supplies to satisfy the always hungry boys. He was more
advanced in years than the majority of the officers and men,
and was noted for his familiarity with the scriptures, from
which he quoted copiously and continuously, always apropos
to the conversation or subject of discussion. He was
fortunate in his selection of a staff of assistants in his depart-
ment: A. D. Caplinger, James F. Caplinger and Jacob
Yeager ; the latter was commissary sergeant, and upon the
retirement of Campbell he was promoted to commissary.
Assistant Surgeon Geo. S. Whipple.
From Worthville, Ky., kind, gentle, charitable and self-
sacrificing, was the good Samaritan of the Fourth Kentucky
Regiment, the well-beloved and most excellent physician.
Physically, he was a rather small man, with, however, a
sturdy, well-knit frame, capable of much endurance. His
CAPT. WARRKN MONTFORT.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 117
pleasing, sympathetic manner made the men instinctively turn
to him, not only when they were sick, but also when
depressed in mind, by reason of home-sickness, the loss of a
comrade or the receiving of sad news from the far-away
Kentucky home. He was approachable at all times, and
ever ready to minister to either the body or a mind diseased.
Medicines were scarce in the Confederacy, and the good
doctor's chest was generally nearly empty, but, somehow, he
always had a " balm in Gilead. " There were other physicians
— Doctor Scott, Doctor L. I/. Gregory, Doctor Bob Smith
and Doctor Ireland, all of them capable and faithful, com-
manding the respect and confidence of the men, but they
were not endowed with that sympathetic magnetism which
characterized Doctor Whipple.
Captain Warren Montfort.
" Of chivalry the flower and pride,
The arm in battle bold."
A young and handsome officer was Captain Warren Mont-
fort ; generous, and possessing many accomplishments, his
banner was festooned with the emblems of every knightly
virtue. He commanded Company D, Sixth Confederate
Battalion, and went with Jessee, under Morgan's orders, to
make a demonstration against Maysville, in June, 1864, and
returned to the main command in time, personally, to awaken
General Morgan on the fateful Sunday morning at Cynthiana.
Captain Montfort was in command of Morgan's rear guard,
retreating from Cynthiana, and at Clayvillage commended
himself to all honest soldiers by making the " bummers "
unload their ill-gotten spoils — bolts of calico, muslin, milli-
nery, jewelry, etc. By reason of the captain's many accom-
plishments he held various positions in the army. At the
battle of Bulls Gap, he was on the staff of General John C.
Breckinridge, when that famous general went into the fight
at the head of his troops. At Wytheville, Captain Montfort
was in the advance of Morgan's charge on Averill. At Bulls
Gap, he captured papers belonging to the Federal general,
Gillem, which substantiated beyond a doubt the fact that
1 1 8 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
General Morgan had been murdered at Greenville. Being a
prisoner on Johnson's Island, he became very sick and much
emaciated. The surgeon asked him, " Do you want to
die ? " Montfort replied, " Not unless I have to." He was
exchanged, and vicissitudes of war brought a certain chaplain
into the gallant captain's hands, a prisoner. The chaplain
was an acquaintance the captain had made when he was
himself a prisoner. Captain Montfort took him to General
Morgan, and said : " General Morgan, I have a man here
who would make a most excellent chaplain." Morgan court-
eously acknowledged the introduction and smilingly said r
" Sir, my men don't pray very much, but I heartily welcome
you, and you are at liberty to make them pray, if you can."
LlEUTENANT-COLONEI, CLARENCE J. PRENTICE.
" I have song of war for knight,
I,ay of love for lady bright."
A young, dashing officer, of medium height, rotund in
form, long, curling brown hair, always jovial, extremely
handsome, there was much about Colonel Clarence Prentice
that made him an attractive and entertaining personage.
Always bold, he was often rash, seldom prudent. A younger
son of Geo. D. Prentice, the famous editor of the Louisville
Journal, he possessed much of the versatility of his illustrious
sire. Although his father espoused the Union cause, and
wielded his mighty pen ridiculing and anathematizing the
" seceders," Clarence and his brother, Courtland, wereardent
Southrons, and promptly enlisted under " the strange new
flag," the starry cross of Dixie. Courtland, a promising
young captain of cavalry, under Colonel Basil Duke, was
killed at Augusta, Ky., September 18, 1862. Clarence, com-
manding a battalion of cavalry, was for a time attached to
Giltner's brigade. He had been a free lance, a jolly youth
about the city of Louisville, and he was the same when " a
soldier in gray." His battalion was difficult to discipline,
being made up of men from no particular section of the
country — many of them being wild, " tough " characters, and
not a few were deserters from the Federal army. Many
K'EXTL "<TA' V CAl 'ALIERS IX DIXIE. 1 1 9
amusing stories were told of the rollicking times the young
colonel had with his soldiers, whom he called by their names.
Tom, Dick, Harry, etc., and of the summary manner in
which he often subdued their mutinous spirits. Notwith-
standing his wild revels and familiarity with his men, thev
were afraid of him and of the gleam of his ever-ready pistol.
which promptly flashed in the air when there were signs of
insubordination or overt acts of mutiny Prentice, as I have
intimated, was fond of fun. He had his men trained to do
the "circus act,'' in many ways. Upon one occasion it
became my duty to direct Colonel Prentice to a camping
ground. Taking position to intercept him, I awaited his
coming. He soon appeared, jauntily riding at the head of
his column. In reply to the order I communicated to him.
he said, '' All right, my boy ! " and invited me to ride with
him to the encampment. After a few off-hand pleasantries.
he asked if I would like to hear his ,; yahoos " give a yell.
Giving an affirmative answer I was surprised to see him
simply lift his gold braided cap from his head ; he neither
turned around, nor gave a word of command, but instantly
there arose such a terrific and prolonged yell, running from
front to rear, that would have made a Comanche Indian
green with envy and hang his head in shame. Ever}"
"yahoo" seemed to keep his eyes on that little cap. and
when Prentice gracefully lifted it. every fellow knew just
what to do. Prentice was the handiest man with a pistol I
ever saw. I have seen him throw a chip into the air and hit
it before it fell to the earth. Again, he would designate two
small objects, on either side of the road, almost opposite each
other, and then, at a gallop, he would almost invariably put
a ball into both objects as his horse swept by them. He fre-
quently visited brigade headquarters . where he was always
welcome, and read original poetry, usually humorous, written
in regard to some army incident, sang gay ditties and played
the violin, of which instrument he was a master. Upon one
occasion he read a number of verses, suggested to him by
fmding a soldier, during an inconsequential skirmish, safely
ensconced behind a small log hut, some distance behind the
line, raoidlv loading and firing his gun "straight un in the
120 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
air." Prentice demanded an explanation, to which the
soldier excitedly replied: "Oh, colonel, I want to let 'em
know I'm here ! " Each stanza read by the colonel closed
with the quotation : " I'm letting 'em know I'm here."
It was Colonel Clarence Prentice who first introduced the
famous giant, Baby Bates, to civilization. He had found
Bates in the Kentucky mountains, " a youth to fortune and
to fame unknown." The giant accompanied us on Morgan's
last raid in Kentucky, and at the close of the war Prentice
took him to Louisville and made a " show " of him, exhibit-
ing him in the saloons and to "the boys about town."
Returning to Louisville, during the summer after the war, I
frequently saw Prentice and Bates perambulating the streets,
sometimes going from " groceree to groceri," a Lilliputian
and a Brobdingnaggian.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 121
Lieutenant Archie W. Smith — Recruiting in Kentucky— Gen-
eral Order No. 38 — Execution of Corbin and McGraw —
lleutenant-coi,onei, george m. jessee— general s. b. buck-
Lieutenant Archie W. Smith.
EARI/Y in 1863 there came an order from Richmond that
each Kentucky regiment should send one commis-
sioned officer, one non-commissioned officer and two enlisted
men into Kentucky on a recruiting expedition. In obedience
to that order Lieutenant Archie W Smith, of Company E,
Fourth Kentucky Cavalry ; Sergeant Will Helm, of Company
H, and privates Wm. J. Corbin and T. J. McGraw, of Com-
pany D, were selected for that perilous duty. Upon reaching
Central Kentucky the party separated, intending to go to the
vicinity of their respective homes, as they thought they
could operate more successfully where they were known.
The entire party was captured. When it is remembered
that Burnside's infamous order No. 38 had been promul-
gated, and was being cruelly and relentlessly enforced, the
reader will realize that a great danger threatened the brave
and adventuresome Kentuckians, when captured within
Federal lines. General Burbridge, commanding in Ken-
tucky, ordered that poor Corbin and McGraw should be shot
to death. The order was executed in cold blood. Sergeant
Helm escaped a like fate by being permitted to take " the
oath." lieutenant Smith was ordered to prison, but made
his escape by daringly jumping from a car window. He was
a man of splendid physique, exceedingly tall, his hair and
beard of raven blackness — a man easily described and notice-
able in any assemblage ; hence it would seem almost impos-
sible that he should succeed in eluding the Federals.
He never for a moment forgot his mission, and instead of
taking i( the oath " or endeavoring to slip back to the Con-
122 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
federate lines he bravely, but prudently and intelligently, did
some of the most successful recruiting work ever done in
Kentucky. It is not generally known that in the Fourth Ken-
tucky were eighteen young men from near Franklin, Ind.
Such, however, was the fact. lieutenant Smith, hearing that
they desired to enlist under the Confederate banner, adroitly
managed to conduct them to his rendezvous, at Ray's School
House, Trimble County, Ky., whence he started southward
with sixty-four men. His route was through Southern Ken-
tucky, thence to Sparta and McMinnville, Tenn., and then to
Abingdon, Va., where he reported to General Wm. Preston.
When he arrived at the camp of his regiment, inCastlewoods,
his reception was an ovation. Colonel Pryor, always impul-
sive, hastily tore a new gold cord band from his hat and
presented it to lieutenant Smith as a token of appreciation
of his gallantry and success.
Lieutenant-Colonel George M. Jessee.
In the spring of 1862 George M. Jessee, of Henry County,
recruited a company of one hundred gallant young men from
the counties of Henry, Carroll and Trimble. After a short
time spent in drilling and arming his youthful volunteers
Captain Jessee started with them in an attempt to run the
gauntlet of Federal troops to reach the Southland. He had
proceeded to Scott County, when he was joined by another
company, which had been recruited in Boone County This
company was officered as follows: Captain Boyd, First
Lieutenant L- C. Norman and Second Lieutenant Marion
Corbin. The two companies remained in Scott County
several days, and then started on the march for Virginia. At
Mt. Sterling they were attacked by about three hundred
Federals, commanded by an officer named Brooks. In the
endeavor to evade the Federals they attempted to pass
through the town, where they were fired upon by Home
Guards, who had made a fortress of the court-house — many
private residences being also occupied by them. While the
Home Guards were pouring a galling fire into them from the
buildings the Federal cavalry were pressing them in the rear,
LIETTT.-COI.. GEO. M. JESSE.E.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 123
the result being a running fight, which lasted until late in
the afternoon, the engagement having begun at sunrise. In
or near the town four young men, Holmes, Abbott, Beasley
and Holbrook, were killed and several were wounded. The
entire command was captured and taken to Winchester.
Captain Jessee at once made his escape from Federal
clutches and returned to Henry County, where he recruited
another company of one hundred and three men, and once
more started South, going through Shelby and Nelson Coun-
ties. At JBloomfield, in the latter county, he was joined by
lieutenant Allston with fifty men recruited in Shelby and
Oldham Counties. On the next night, while taking supper
and feeding their horses on the farm of a man named Shelby,
the little band was attacked by the Federals, and fought them
all night, losing five men killed and several wounded.
The enemy having retreated to Danville, Jessee resumed
his march, reaching Knoxville, Tenn., without further
serious adventure. At Knoxville Jessee and his men were
mustered into the Confederate arm}-.
General B. Kirby Smith having just entered Kentucky
Captain Jessee was immediately ordered back into the State
as an escort for a number of prominent Confederate officers
whom General Smith had left behind. At Big Creek Gap
Jessee and his followers encountered two Federal regiments,
commanded by Shelly and Cooper, belonging to the army of
General George W Morgan, who then held Cumberland
Gap. In the engagement that ensued Jessee's men were sur-
rounded, and again he lost his soldiers — more than one
hundred men, the captain himself escaping with two men.
Captain Jessee proceeded to Lexington, Ky. , where he
reported to General Kirby Smith, giving him the first authen-
tic information of General George W Morgan's evacuation
of Cumberland Gap. The captain requested General Smith
to give him a detachment to go to Henry County to regulate
Provost Marshal George Dickens and a band of soldiers
under Colonel Robert Morris, who were arresting and intim-
idating citizens of Southern proclivities. General Smith
complied by giving Captain Jessee an order to Colonel Max-
well, commanding a Floridian regiment, stationed at
124 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Frankfort. Colonel Maxwell being anxious to make a raid
gladly complied with, the order, and detailing one hundred
men obtained permission from General Smith to accompany
Jessee himself. They extended their raid to Bedford, near
the Ohio River, and upon their return they encountered
Morris and Dickens at Newcastle, captured Dickens and
thirty men, one cannon and one hundred and fort}- stands of
arms — completely routing the Federals.
Returning to Frankfort, Captain Jessee accompanied the
army to the Perry ville battlefield, recruited a few more men,
thirty-five or forty, joined General Humphrey Marshall's
column and retreated from the State, going to Abingdon,
Va., where he was soon joined by the men of his other two
companies, who had been exchanged. When his men were
reorganized Captain Jessee found himself in command of
four Kentucky companies, including Captain Rowan's com-
pany which then joined him. The organization was as fol-
lows : Company A, Captain W O. Stewart ; Company B,
Captain L,. C. Norman ; Company C, Captain W Rowan ;
Company D, Captain Warren Montfort; known as the Third
Having received from the secretary of Avar authority to
raise a regiment, and not being able to get into Ken-
tucky to recruit troops, two companies of Virginians, one
under Captain Boyd, the other under Captain McFarlane,
joined Jessee's little battalion, which then became known as
the Sixth Confederate Battalion. This was in 1863.
It will be seen in another chapter that, after the battle of
Cynthiana, Jessee was detached by order of Colonel Giltner
and directed to remain in Kentucky and rally as many of the
men, who had been scattered over the State by that disaster,
as possible and lead them to Virginia. This was a difficult
task to perform and was never thoroughly accomplished.
The Confederacy was tottering, in imminent danger of col-
lapse, and Jessee was far away from base, in a country over-
run by the enemy. His position was extremely dangerous,
requiring the most consummate finesse to avoid capture.
The hair-breadth escapes of Jessee and his men, and the
thrilling episodes that went to make up their career in Ken-
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 125
tucky, would, of themselves, furnish material for a most
interesting and romantic chapter of partisan warfare.
Adjutant-General Edward O. Guerrant pays the following
tribute to Jessee and his men :
"Of Colonel Jessee's conduct on the ill-fated field at Cynthiana
nothing but praise can justly be spoken. His command of Spartans
was placed on the left wing, by the side of the Fourth Kentucky, and
with that gallant regiment left the field when valor could no longer
contend with overwhelming numbers. He was among the last who
■crossed the river, and everything appearing to be lost, and every one
inspired with but one idea, that of saving himself, Colonel Jessee
rallied the remnant of his command and offered an effectual resist-
ance to the repeated assaults of the enemy made on the rear of our
broken and flying forces. So soon as the enemy stopped the pursuit,
Colonel Giltner ordered Colonel Jessee to repair to the counties of
Henry, Owen, etc., for the purpose of collecting together and leading
back to the Confederate lines all Confederate soldiers scattered
throughout said counties, the best time and manner of accomplish-
ing said object being of course left to the discretion of Colonel Jes-
see. This order I wrote myself."
Colonel J. Stoddard Johnston, adjutant-general to Gen-
eral John C. Breckinridge, says that while Colonel Jessee
was in Kentucky he was in communication with headquarters
and in receipt of orders therefrom ; that he not only sent
out a number of recruits, but all officers sent into Kentucky
on recruiting or other service were instructed to communicate
and co-operate with him. Toward the close of the year 1864
the Confederate Government determined to concentrate all
its forces for the struggle evidently before them, and to that
end it was deemed proper to call in all troops on detached
The following order was sent to Colonel Jessee :
Headquarters Department Virginia and
WythevieeE, Va., December 4, 1864.
To Colonei. George M. Jessee, Commanding, etc., in Kentucky :
I am directed by Major-General Breckinridge to convey to you
his orders. He directs that upon receipt of this you will make your
preparations to return to this department with your command.
Whatever may be the obstacles to bringing out the men composing
126 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
your command he directs that you report in person with or without
them at these headquarters on or before February i, 1865. And if
opportunity offers report by letter prior to that time.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. Stoddard Johnston, A. A. G.
Colonel Johnston says that in obedience to this order
Colonel Jessee reported in person to General Breckinridge
before the time specified — the difficulty of bringing troops
from Kentucky through the mountains to Virginia being
sufficient to account for his failure to bring his command •
that Colonel Jessee's report of affairs and of his own opera-
tions were perfectly satisfactory to General Breckinridge and
to General Echols, who succeeded him a few days after
Colonel Jessee's arrival. In fact that the colonel's report was
so satisfactory that he was ordered back to Kentucky with
increased authority, and directed to bring back with him, not
only his own command, but all Confederate soldiers in
General Echols issued the following order :
Leave of absence for ten days is granted to Lieutenant-Colonel
George M. Jessee, Sixth Confederate Battalion, at the expiration of
which time he will be permitted to pass into Kentucky with ten men
on business denned in special order No. 35.
By command of
J. Stoddard Johnston, A. A. G.
At the expiration of his leave of absence Colonel Jessee,
in obedience to the foregoing order, returned to Kentucky,
but the war closed almost immediately thereafter, and of
course he could operate no longer under the terms of the
Early in the war, and probably at intervals later, a part of
the organization known as the Sixth Confederate Battalion
was commanded by Major Allen E- McAfee, a gallant and
soldierly-looking officer, large and of commanding appear-
ance. He was a member of the McAfee family famous in
Kentucky annals, and was captured during one of General
Morgan's raids — in 1864, I believe.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 127
General Simon B. Buckner.
This most accomplished officer, the hero of the battle of
Fort Donelson, was the immediate predecessor of General
John H. Morgan in command of the troops in Southwestern
Virginia and East Tennessee.
General Buckner's review of the troops, an imposing array
of infantry, cavalry and artillery, massed at Bull's Gap, I
shall never forget.
Sitting upon a noble charger, showily caparisoned,
General Buckner appeared the model soldier. I never saw a
more graceful figure on horseback. Erect and handsome,
the general sat his horse and held the reins exactly as
prescribed by cavalry tactics and army regulations. The
stately, elegantly attired general and the regiments and bat-
talions, with burnished guns and gleaming sabers, passing in
review before him made up a most attractive pageant. The
bands played inspiring airs, among them the " Southern
Marseillaise," and the general gracefully returned the salutes
of the marching divisions.
Upon leaving the department for other fields General
Buckner addressed the following letter to his successor,
General Morgan :
Headquarters Department East Tennessee,
Abingdon, Va., May 2, 1864.
General : I have been ordered to distant service, and have
relinquished the command of this department.
I can not part from my gallant compatriots from Kentucky with-
out expressing through you my regrets at the separation. Assure
them that wherever I may be I will watch their career with the deep-
Though exiled for a time from a land which is so dear to us we
should not lose sight of the fact that in whatever part of the Confed-
eracy we may be called upon to serve, every blow which is struck
tends to strike off the fetters which bind our fair land to Northern
The day will surely come when those of the gallant band who
may survive the coming campaign will look upon our beloved State
enfranchised and happy.
Say to your troops that I have taken steps which will, I hope,
very soon supply them with the equipments necessary to their em-
128 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
ciency and comfort. I look to them to furnish an example of
discipline, as well as of gallantry, under whatever officers they may
be called upon to obey ; for obedience to our officers is a duty we all
owe to our country, to our cause, to our State and to those cherished
ones for whose freedom and happiness we are contending.
For yourself, general, and for the gallant men under your com-
mand receive the assurances of the regard of
Your friend truly,
S. B. Buckner, Major-General.
Brigadier-General John H. Morgan,
Commanding Kentucky Cavalry.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 129
General John H. Morgan — His Escape from the Ohio
1 ' O, war ! thou hast thy fierce delight.
Thy gleams of joy, intensely bright !
Such gleams as from thy polished shield
Fly dazzling o'er the battlefield."
GENERAL JOHN MORGAN was a magnetic man, of
pleasing personality, very handsome ; his manner gen-
ial and gracious, his face was an open book. A dark mus-
tache drooped over a laughing mouth — his face being lighted
by an indescribably pleasant, perennial smile. Easily
approached, all men were his friends. I never saw him
otherwise than neatly dressed, and he was often elegantly
attired, always a gentleman. He was the kind of man to be
at home in a parlor, to grace a lady's boudoir, and a welcome
addition to any coterie of gentlemen, assembled in any place.
He always had about him a glittering staff; accomplished
young men, resplendent in gold lace and fine clothes, gen-
erally representatives of the best Kentucky families.
I have a pleasant recollection of the first time I ever met
General Morgan. Being at his headquarters in quest of his
adjutant-general, Captain Charles A. Withers, I found the
general first, reclining in the shade of a tree. He greeted
me most kindly, made a few pleasant observations and court-
eously directed me to the adjutant-general's quarters. His
Chesterfieldian manner captivated me at once, being very
different from that which characterized many bluff, haughty
officers with whom I was acquainted. His extreme socia-
bility won the undying affections of his men. Riding along
the column, he would talk in a jovial, free and easy way,
putting his cavaliers in the best of spirits.
General Morgan was the Marion of the civil war, operat-
ing, however, on a more extensive scale than did the "Swamp
Fox " of the Carolinas, and introducing novel tactics of war-
130 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
fare never dreamed of by the Carolina ranger. Morgan and
his men especially delighted in an opportunity to visit Ken-
tucky and strike the enemy there. They loved her people
and her bluegrass fields,
" Her forests and her valleys fair,
Her flowers that scent the morning air."
General John Hunt Morgan was a native of Alabama,
born at Huntsville, June i, 1825 ; consequently he was about
thirty-six years old when he entered the Confederate service.
When he was about four years old his father, Calvin C.
Morgan, removed to Lexington, Ky., the general's maternal
grandfather, John W Hunt, being a leading merchant there.
His father had also been a merchant at Huntsville. There
were six brothers, of whom the general was the eldest. Cap-
tain Cal Morgan, Colonel Dick Morgan, Major Charlton
Morgan, Lieutenant Thomas Morgan and probably another
younger brother served in the Southern army.
In the Mexican war General Morgan had been a lieuten-
ant in Colonel Humphrey Marshall's regiment of cavalry.
In 1857 he was captain of the Lexington Rifles, noted for
its drill and efficiency. His company was afterward incor-
porated into the State guard, and, in September, 1861, Cap-
tain Morgan eluded the vigilance of the Federals and
escaped to the Confederate lines with most of his company.
He became a colonel of cavalry April 4, 1862. In Decem-
ber, 1862, he was commissioned a brigadier- general. His
noted raids into Kentucky were made in July, 1862, August,
September and December of the same year, and in June,
1864. His great raid through Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio
was made in July, 1863, resulting in his capture and imprison-
ment in the Ohio State prison — as infamous an outrage as was
ever inflicted upon a generous, chivalric soldier.
Generai, Morgan's Escape from Prison.
The following graphic account of General Morgan's escape
from the Ohio penitentiary, after an imprisonment of four
months, was written by Samuel C. Reid, a Kentuckian, and
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 131
published in a pamphlet at Atlanta, Ga.: " The general owed
his escape to his fellow-prisoner and officer, Captain Thomas
H. Hines, then a young man about twenty -three years of age,
of great nerve, tact, energy and endurance.
" Merion, the warden, magnifying the importance of his
station, on the morning of November 3, 1863, so grossly
insulted Captain Hines that he determined to plan means of
escape. He was reading Victor Hugo's description in 'L,es
Miserables' of the subterranean passages of Paris and of the
wonderful escapes of Jean Valjean. He argued in his mind
that the dryness of the cells must be owing to air passages
or ventilators beneath to prevent the moisture from rising,
and that by removing the cement and brick in the cells they
might reach the air chamber, and thence escape by under-
mining the foundation walls.
" This plan was first communicated to Captain Sam B.
Taylor (a grandnephew of President Zachary Taylor), who
was as agile, ingenious and daring as Captain Hines. There
were difficulties to overcome from the arrangement of the
cells — five tiers or stories high of solid stonemasonry, six feet
long, six feet high and three feet wide. General Morgan's
cell was in the second story, and Hines' immediately beneath.
With two case knives, which had been sent from the hospital
with food for some of the sick men, the work was begun
November 4th in Hines' cell — he assuming the responsibility
and alone taking the risk of discovery and its consequent
punishment. With these two men could work at a time —
relieving each other every hour, and spending four to five
hours per day in labor. The work progressed steadily —
Hines keeping strict guard, and by a system of knocks or
raps upon the cell door, indicating when to begin and when
to cease work and when to stop work and come out. The
cement and bricks removed were hidden by the men in their
beds. The prison guards were always suspicious and watch-
ful, and some privileged convicts were sometimes set as spies
to watch the Confederate officers.
" After digging in each of seven cells a hole eighteen inches
square through six inches of cement and six layers of brick
the air chamber was reached, sixty feet long, three wide and
132 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE
three high. Thereafter the rubbish was removed to the air
chamber, while the holes were carefully concealed by their
beds. But their patient work was scarcely begun. They
worked thence through twelve feet of solid masonry, fourteen
feet of fine stone and cement and five feet of graveled earth,
and on November 26th reached the yard of the penitentiary.
For the first time General Morgan was now made acquainted
with the mysterious underground avenues, and was greatly
surprised and delighted with the work.
" A consultation in Morgan's cell on the evening of the
27th determined them to attempt escape that night. The
weather for some two weeks before had been perfectly clear,
and for several nights succeeding their escape the ground and
penitentiary walls were covered by a heavy sleet, which would
have made it impossible to scale the latter. Late in the
evening of the 27th light fleecy clouds gathered in the west,
which with the feeling of the atmosphere betokened a cloudy
sky and rain. At 9 p. m. a steady rain set in, lasting through
the night. Thus far well ; but how to scale the outside wall,
thirty-five feet high ? Besides, several sentinels were on post
in the yard and two or three vicious dogs were unchained at
night. Again, General Morgan was to be gotten out of his
cell in the second story before the turnkey locked all the cell
doors at 5 o'clock p. m. ' Love laughs at locksmiths,' and so
did Morgan s men. Calvin Morgan made out of his bed-
ticking a rope seventy feet long, and out of a small iron
poker a hook for the end of the rope. At 5 p. M. Colonel
Dick Morgan went to his brother's cell, while the general was
locked up in. Dick's, one of the seven on the ground floor.
Colonel Dick Morgan's personal appearance was much like
that of the general. General Morgan was allowed the excep-
tional privilege of a candle to read by after 9 p. m., and the
turnkey on going his rounds finding Colonel Dick Morgan
with a book before his face reading mistrusted nothing and
locked in the wrong prisoner.
" In the stillness of midnight, when even a whisper could be
heard, Captain Sam Taylor dropped noiselessly into the air
chamber, passed under the other six cells and touched the
occupants as a signal to come forth — each first so shaping his
KENTUCKY CA V ALTERS IN DIXIE. 1 33
bed-clothes as to resemble the sleeping form of a man and
prevent the guards' suspicions on their two-hourly rounds until
after daylight. When they emerged from the hole under the
foundation three sentinels stood within ten feet of them ; but
the steady rainfall drowned any noise from their footsteps.
They had gone a few paces toward the wall when one of the
huge, fierce dogs with a low growl came running to within ten
feet of them, barked once and then went off. Did the dog
mistake them for sentinels? or was it not a special provi-
dence which made him sympathize with escaping rebels?
They reached in safety the east gate of the wall, a double gate
thirty feet high, of iron outside, and inside of heavy wooden
cross-timbers with open spaces. Wrapping a stone in a
cloth, to prevent noise, and tying to it one end of the rope,
Taylor threw it over the top of the inside gate, the weight of
the stone drawing down the rope. Securing the hook to one
of the timbers, one by one the part}- climbed to the top of
the gate, and thence to the top of the wall. The rope was
hauled up, the hook fastened to the iron railing on the main
wall, and in a few minutes they had descended to the open
street, within thirty steps of a guard, near a bright gas-
" The party immediately separated, Morgan and Hines
going together. By a letter in cipher to a lady friend who
sometimes loaned books to the prisoners, Hines' ' need of
money had been supplied — the money being hidden within
the folds or binding of a book. Morgan wore goggles,
loaned by a sore-eyed fellow-prisoner, and kept at a distance
from the gaslight, while Hines went boldly to the ticket
office and purchased two tickets just as the Cincinnati train,
at 1:25 A. m., came thundering along. Once in the car with-
out suspicion they felt equal to any emergency, and by care
and ingenuity made good their escape to the South. The
coolness and composure of Captain Hines were wonderful ; he
spent the evening, from 5 to 9, in reading one of Charles
Lever's novels, and then slept soundly until aroused by Cap-
tain Taylor at midnight. The escaping party was composed
of General Morgan, Sam Taylor, Thomas Hines, Gustavus
S. McGee, Ralph Sheldon, Jacob C. Bennett and James D.
1 34 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
General Morgan Defeats Averill — Major Parker Killed,
May io, 1864.
IN the spring of 1864, General Morgan was near Abingdon,
Va. , reorganizing his command, which had been in con-
fusion and scattered since the raid through Kentucky,
Indiana and Ohio. As usual, his mind was on Kentucky,
and he was longing to once more lead his cavaliers to their
old Kentucky homes. While in the midst of preparations
for the long ride into Kentucky, his plans were temporarily
frustrated by Hunter's raid upon Lynchburg. General
Averill, having been detached from Hunter's column, marched
into Southwestern Virginia, his objective point being presum-
ably the Saltworks.
General Morgan, not being disposed to await Averill's
coming, determined to march against him to check his
advance, and, if possible, drive him back. Giltner's brigade
had been assigned to Morgan's division, composing the
larger part of it. The bugles sounded and the command
was soon making a rapid march to find the invading Feder-
als. Striking the main valley turnpike at a point between
Glade Spring and Marion, and not knowing just when or
where we should meet Averill's cavalry, the command
formed fours and marched toward Wytheville. Passing
through that town, cheered by the ladies, who waved hand-
kerchiefs and flags and smiled encouragingly, we met the
enemy May 10th, some distance beyond, at Crockett's farm,
I think, and immediately charged them, the Federals soon
breaking, and Morgan keeping up with them and charging
every time they made an attempt to give battle. It was a
running fight, lasting until sunset. On account of the
peculiar character of the fight, the enemy being "on the
run " nearly all the time, the casualties were neither very
numerous or sanguinary on either side.
This was General Morgan's first fight after his escape
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 135
from prison, and the signal victory had a wonderfully inspir-
ing effect on the men and increased their longing desire for
the contemplated trip to Kentucky. Our elation, however,
was much subdued by the death of Major Parker, of the
Fourth Kentucky, who fell, between 3 and 5 o'clock,
struck by a spent ball immediately over the heart, and died
almost instantly, his last words being, " Charge them, my
brave boys ! " There were numerous acts of heroism per-
formed, which I shall not stop here to record. The dashing
impetuosity of Morgan's command and the promptness of the
attack were an unexpected shock to the surprised Federals,
and they were pressed so closely that they had no chance
to recover from their " nervousness." Averill's march had
been characterized by much of the " pomp and circumstance
of war," but he returned whence he came, crestfallen, with
" drooping banners all tattered and torn."
136 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Morgan's Last Ride Into Kentucky, June, 1864— Preparations
for the Trip — Organization — The March to Mt. Sterling
—The First Battle There.
" Riding to battle on battle day —
Why, a soldier is something more than a king !
But after the battle? The riding away ?
Ah, the riding away is another thing !"
WHILE encamped near Abingdon, Va., during the
sunny days of May, 1864, General Morgan and his
men were in good humor. Like Napoleon on the morn of
Waterloo the general joked with his cavaliers, who hailed
with delight and loud acclaim the dawn of the first day of
the march to Kentucky — the Promised Land, a Canaan flow-
ing with milk and honey.
We were living on an occasional half ration of rice and
" blue beef," and a change of any kind would be welcome.
But a trip to Kentucky ! Nothing could be more to our
liking. There was, of course, much speculation as to what
parts of the State we should visit, and as, to whether we should
have an opportunity of seeing loved ones at home, to whom
we were then almost strangers. The dangers and privations
that would necessarily attend the march were not con-
" Though the future was veiled,
And its fortunes unknown,
We impatiently waited
Till the bugle was blown."
Our force was organized into three brigades, as follows :
First Brigade — Colonel H. L. Giltner; Second Brigade —
Colonel D. Howard Smith ; Third Brigade — Colonel Robert
Giltner's brigade was composed of the Fourth Kentucky
Cavalry, Colonel Tandy Pryor; Tenth Kentucky Cavalry
Battalion, Colonel Trimble ; First Kentucky Mounted Rifles
GEN. JOHN H. MORGAN.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 137
Battalion (Colonel Zeke Clay's), now commanded by Major
Holliday; Second Kentucky Mounted Rifles Battalion,
Colonel Tom Johnson ; Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles
Battalion, Major Tom Chenoweth; Sixth Confederate Bat-
talion, Ivieutenant-Colonel George Jessee ; aggregating about
nine hundred and seventy-five men.
Colonel D. Howard Smith's brigade consisted of the First,
Second and Third Battalions of cavalry, commanded by
Colonels Bowles, Kirkpatrick and Cassell, respectively, num-
bering about five hundred men.
Colonel Robert Martin's brigade, dismounted men, was
divided into First and Second Battalions, commanded by
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Alston and Major Diamond, num-
bering between eight hundred and one thousand men.
All being ready we bade good-bye to Old Virginia, and
" Cheer, boys, cheer, we'll march away to battle ;
Cheer, boys, cheer, for our sweethearts and our wives,"
we merrily and jauntily set our faces toward the " old Ken-
tucky home far away."
In passing through the gap in the mountains, separating
Virginia from Kentucky, we brushed away a small force of
Federals, on duty there, and proceeded on a necessarily slow
and wearisome march toward Mt. Sterling, our first objective
To better understand subsequent events I must state that
the Federal general, Burbfidge, with a strong force was at
that very time en route to Virginia, his objective point being
probably the Saltworks. He was marching on another road,
however, nearly parallel with our route. I am unaware that
either commander was advised of the contemplated move-
ments of the other. Be that as it may we marched
uninterruptedly to Mt. Sterling, reaching that place June 8,
"When within about twelve miles of Mt. ^Sterling, about
midnight, we left the State Road, turning to the right, and
followed a by-path through a woodland dark as Erebus. We
knew that there was a Federal force in or near the town, and
General Morgan, who nearly always, sometimes to his sor-
138 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
row, went right at any obstruction in his front, was anxious
to attack the enemy without any unnecessary delay. It
would not do, however, to " run in on them " in the dark,
especially as we were not certain of their location. Halted
in column on that balmy summer morning, in the immediate
vicinity of the enemy, the men talking sotto voce, quietly
awaiting daylight, the suspense was oppressive. There was
not a particle of noise, except the occasional stamping or
whimpering of a restless charger, the twittering of birds that
had just awakened, but had not left their " leafy bowers," and
the crowing of happy chanticleers heralding the coming day.
Not waiting for the " foot cavalry," which was far in the
rear, General Morgan, at daylight, quietly led the column for-
ward, across the farm of Mack Everett, a brother of the
noted Confederate free-lance, Captain Pete Everett. Just as
we reached the gate, immediately to the right of Everett's
residence, he came out into the yard, bare-headed and
clothed in nothing more than an immaculately white shirt,
black broadcloth trousers and slippers, and looking the
picture of surprise, he asked : ' ' Where in the world did you
all come from?" In answer to the query, "Where are the
Yanks?" he jerked his thumb over his shoulder and said,
"Oh, they are right over there ; " which meant that the enemy
were only shut out from our view by a low ridge in the roll-
ing bluegrass surface, and that we were in close proximity to
them. General Morgan ordered Colonel Tom Johnson to
hasten into Mt. Sterling and to take possession of all roads
leading out of it, in order to prevent the escape of any of the
Federals. There were two Federal camps, and when we
charged, Major Holliday, with Clay's battalion, made short
work with the smaller one, on our right, which had opened a
spirited fire on us. He captured the most of them, probably
seventy-five or one hundred. The camp between us and
town was more stubbornly defended by two hundred or more
men. They were first attacked by Colonel Trimble, who
fought them gallantly until reinforced by a battalion of the
Second Brigade, there being but three battalions of Giltner's
brigade present. Jessee and Chenoweth had been sent away
on detached duty, and fifty picked men from the Fourth
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 139
Kentucky, under Captains Bart Jenkins and James T.
Willis, had gone to Frankfort. The enemy were driven
quickly into the town, where the Fourth Kentucky, dis-
mounted, charged them. They poured a galling fire into our
,ranks from the houses in which they had taken refuge. Cap-
tain Swango, of the Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles, was
killed by a shot from Doctor Drake's house, and Captain
Moore, of the same battalion, was killed by a shot from a
house near the bank. Colonel Johnson ordered Drake's house
to be burned, but the order was countermanded by Colonel
Pryor, to whom the enemy surrendered. This was the third
time the town of Mt. Sterling had been converted into a
fortress and Confederates shot down from the houses. It
was probably the meanest town to the Confederate soldier
in the State. It was here that Henry Abbott and young
Holmes, of Trimble County, and other brave youths, under
Captain Jessee, had been shot down from houses earlier in
the war. Retributive justice came later, when Captain Pete
Everett entered it at night and burned the court-house and
Captain Jack Harris and Jefferson Harris of Trimble's bat-
talion, I think, were shot ; the first through both arms and
the latter mortally wounded, shot through the head. Colonel
Johnson's and Lieutenant Jordan's horses were shot from
under them. The capture was complete by 6 A. m., and
Giltner's brigade, or a part of it, took possession of the
enemy's tents. The Federals lost about ten killed, the usual
proportion wounded, and about two hundred and seventy-
one prisoners. We captured also the camp equipage of Bur-
bridge's absent troopers, consisting of tents, quartermaster
and commissary stores and a lot of broken down cavalry
A number of wagons were sent back to haul up the weary,
footsore men of Martin's dismounted brigade, all of whom
arrived in the vicinity of Mt. Sterling in the evening.
The captured Federals belonged to various Ohio and Ken-
tucky regiments, gone with Burbridge. The capture was a
veritable bonanza for our boys, who, being ravenously
hungry, immediately and without ceremony sat themselves
140 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
down to the banquet prepared by the Federals. However,,
we had called rather early, and our hosts not having had
time to serve a breakfast commensurate with our voracious
appetites, we supplemented the " spread " by appropriating
to our own use and benefit their liberal stores of coffee —
thirty sacks — sugar, flour, crackers, meat, etc., and proceeded
to do some cooking ourselves. In the tents we found a
number of officer's trunks filled with " biled shirts," fine
clothing, etc. In common with others, I found a trunk, and
without any conscientious scruples jumped upon it with
both feet and smashed the top into smithereens. That was
the only way to get into it, and of course I was bound to
" get there." The owner had the key in his pocket and was
probably miles away with General Burbridge. The officer
who owned that trunk must have been a dandy, a gentleman
of exquisite fancy. I forthwith discarded my "old clothes "
and " dressed up " in the elegant habiliments found in the
trunk, and, as luck would have it, they fitted me to a t-y ty.
A part of Giltner's brigade remained at Mt. Sterling all
day and until the next morning. This was the first mistake
made in a campaign singularly fraught with a series of signal
victories and defeats. True, we were handicapped by the
necessarily slow movements of the dismounted men, who
were an incubus not to be shaken off. General Burbridge
was behind and likely to fall upon us at any time. We ought
to have been moving all the while we were lying supinely
on our backs that day and night at Mt. Sterling.
The situation was as follows : General Morgan had taken
the Second Brigade and gone toward Lexington ; Chenoweth,
with the Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles, had gone to Paris
and Cynthiana ; Jessee, with the Sixth Confederate, had gone
with Captain Pete Everett to Maysville ; Captains Jenkins
and Willis had gone to Frankfort ; Captain Jackson, with
fifty men, had gone on the road between Mt. Sterling and
Paris, and Captain Lawrence Jones, with the advance guard,
was scouting north and east of Lexington, destroying railway
bridges, telegraph lines, etc. Of Giltner's brigade left at Mt.
Sterling, there were only the Tenth Kentucky Cavalry,
Fourth Kentucky, First Kentucky Mounted Rifles and Sec-
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 141
■ond Kentucky Mounted Rifles, about seven hundred and
eighty-nine men ; and these were further decreased by heavy
guards for the prisoners, pickets, scouts, etc.
When night came we lay quietly down to sleep in the
tents captured in the morning, the dismounted men being in
bivouac some distance in our rear. It was the calm before
the storm. We slept soundly through the night, indifferent
to danger and oblivious of the fact that Burbridge, making a
forced march, was even then thundering along in our rear,
eager to surprise and attack our sleeping troopers, the same
as we had surprised the unsuspecting Federals on the
142 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
The Second Battle at Mt. Sterling.
" At the sound of the bugle,
Each comrade shall spring
Like an arrow released
From the strain of the string."
AT the dawning of daylight, June gth, the enemy, unan-
nounced, charged into our camp. The morning was
rainy and somewhat stormy. My own experience was
similar to that of others. I was sleeping soundly and did
not hear " war's alarm " until Campbell Ross, of the Fourth
Kentucky, hurriedly passing my tent called to me, saying,
the camp was full of Yankees. Poor fellow ! he was killed
shortly afterward. The bullets were whizzing through my
tent, and sooner than I can tell it, I was on my horse, riding
like the wind toward a line being formed by Colonel Pryor,
who was galloping hither and thither, his clarion voice giving
sharp, decisive commands. The charging enemy, only a few
rods distant, kept up such a lively fusillade that I was
admonished to lie flat down on my horse, in that way hoping
to escape to Colonel Pryor's line. A number of the boys
had already been captured, some of them before being able
to mount their horses. Brainerd Bayless was among the
captured ; also Thos. J. McElrath and Frank Darling.
Nearly all of us lost our " baggage," which, however, did
not amount to much.
General Burbridge, hearing that we were in Kentucky, had
countermarched at Prestonburg and, making a forced march
with about three thousand men, was closely following
Lieutenant-Colonel Brent, who commanded our division rear
guard. Strange to say, Colonel Brent was unaware of the
fact. He encamped his men within three hundred yards of
the dismounted men and posted pickets on foot, not more
than two hundred yards in the rear.
Burbridge, taking advantage of our fancied security and
the rain, charged into Colonel Martin's camp, killing and
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 143
capturing many soldiers before they awoke. Colonel Martin,
a most daring and gallant young officer, succeeded in rallying
about three hundred men, and in turn, charging the enemy,
captured and cut down their one piece of artillery and drove
the Federals from the field. They dismounted and returned
in overwhelming numbers, and Martin was forced to fall back
through the town. Lieutenant Guy Flusser, of the Fourth
Kentucky, a proud and gallant Louisville boy, and Lieutenant
"Waller Bullock were among the many killed. Colonel Martin
had two horses shot from under him, and was himself shot
in the foot.
As before stated, the enemy having run over Brent and
forced Martin through the town charged into our camp.
The Fourth Kentucky held them in check, while the other
battalions were being formed and the prisoners gotten out
of the way. The brigade then moved around the town to
form a junction with Colonel Martin who was on the Lexing-
ton Pike. We found Martin in a towering rage at the turn
affairs had taken. He had with him about three hundred
and fifty men, the remnant of the gallant dismounted brigade,
which had been almost annihilated through the inexcusable
negligence of somebody.
The two colonels, Giltner and Martin, determined to fight
Burbridge on the Lexington Pike, although we had not more
than one thousand effective men present, General Morgan
having gone to Lexington with the Second Brigade the day
Colonel Martin was to take his dismounted men, move
around to the right on the Ticktown Pike, and if possible
push the enemy into town by that road. Johnson's battalion
was sent with Martin to scout and flank for him. This left
with Giltner the Fourth Kentucky, Tenth Kentucky Cavalry
and First Battalion Mounted Rifles, under Pryor, Trimble
and Holliday respectively.
About 9 A.M. these three battalions were formed in line of
battle, and then advanced upon the enemy, who were formed
between them and the town. At the first report of musketry
on the right, indicating that Martin had struck the enemy,
our line, with the customary yell, charged, and after a hot
1U KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
fight drove the enemy into the town, where they made forts
of the houses, Mt. Sterling once more becoming a city of
refuge for Federals. The}- poured a galling fire into our
ranks, and having no artillery we were unable to dislodge
them. Had it been possible we would have burned them
out. Our men, behind a fence and small saplings, their only
cover, stood and dared them to come out of the houses. But
they declined the invitation ; comparatively safe, they kept
up an unremitting fire, our men dropping rapidly. Company
A, of the Fourth Kentucky, being especially exposed, seemed
in danger of being annihilated, nearly half the company fall-
ing within a few minutes. Captain Adcock's Company E
suffered nearly as much ; in fact, it was terribly hot all along
the lines. Our command held that position for at least a half
hour, while waiting for Martin to turn the enemy's flank.
Finally being convinced that Martin had been unable to
drive the enemy, our line fell back to the horses. In this
short engagement the Fourth Kentucky had fifty-two men
killed and wounded, most of them shot from houses. Cap-
tain Dick Gathright was severely wounded at the head of his
company. Hugh Lamaster, John Hall and "Squire "Camp-
bell were among the killed, Billy Bohon was captured.
The enemy did not even come out of the houses to follow
us. We moved along on the Lexington Pike and about four
miles out we found Colonel Martin who had lost another one
hundred men in an unsuccessful attempt to drive a largely
superior force on the Ticktown Pike.
Thus finding we were needlessly and uselessly losing our
gallant men, we left the Federals in their forts in the town,
conscious, however, that they would be a menace to our rear
while we should continue our march to Lexington. There
is no denying the fact, we were badly " used up " on the sec-
ond day at Mt. Sterling. The surprise was complete and
our losses great. In the early morning the situation was
depressing, tending to demoralization ; but the phenomenally
short time it took the troops to recover, get into line and
coolly go into battle, challenged the respect and admiration
of even the foe. Ordinary troops would probably have sur-
rendered without firing a gun.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 145
Moving on toward Winchester and Lexington, we had
marched probably seven or eight miles when we met Gen-
eral Morgan and the Second Brigade hurrying back from
Lexington to our relief. The general proposed to return to
Mt. Sterling and fight Burbridge again. Colonels Giltner
and Martin, after relating their experience and describing the
situation, convinced him, however, that he would be risking
too much in attempting to fight largely superior numbers,
barricaded in a town, especially as he had no artillery with
which to dislodge them from the houses.
146 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
Winchester — Lexington — Fort Clay — Buggies and Carriages
for Ambulances — Obtaining Horses — A Generous and Hos-
pitable Bluegrass Family.
MOVING on to Winchester the brigade halted about a
mile beyond the town, the horses were fed and the
troops rested probably an hour. General Morgan with the
Second Brigade went on to Lexington, starting just before
dark. The dismounted men had all been brought along,
some riding "behind" their more fortunate comrades, while
many had obtained horses en route. Thoroughly under-
standing their business and being in the bluegrass country —
a land abounding in horses of royal pedigree, the " foot
cavalry " mounted themselves in a surprisingly short time.
We were encumbered, however, with the prisoners, taken on
the first day at Mt. Sterling, and a large number of wounded
men who were unable to ride their horses. It became neces-
sary to "borrow" a number of buggies and carriages to
serve in lieu of ambulances. It was a novel sight to see
numerous handsome vehicles in column with veteran cavalry-
men. We " borrowed " horses and buggies, day and night,
all along the route, a number of the wounded boys enduring
with heroic fortitude the agony of horseback riding until
" ambulances " could be secured for them. The cavalier nearly
always looks upon the brighter side of a picture, and there
was many a jolly laugh and witty remark at the ludicrous
picture of the dusty, battle-scarred and bleeding veterans
lolling upon the rich cushions of some bluegrass belle's
fine carriage. It must not be supposed, however, that all
those buggies and carriages were taken vi et armis or at the
point of the pistol. Nothing of the kind. With rare excep-
tions they were voluntarily tendered or willingly and
generously presented to us upon receiving a mere intimation
of the extremity to which our wounded boys were reduced.
Proceeding from Winchester toward Lexington, when within
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 147
six or seven miles of the latter city, the sky became illumined
by the light of burning Federal stables and depots, which
General Morgan had caused to be set on fire that he might
see how to fight and also probably to frighten the enemy.
We arrived in the suburbs of Lexington about daylight,
where we found the horses of the Second Brigade, the men
being engaged in skirmishing through the city and driving
the enemy into Fort Clay on the other side, the Federals
making little resistance. Cannon balls from Fort Clay
occasionally ricochetted through the streets. We were
informed that there were three hundred white soldiers and
about five hundred negro troops in and near the fort.
General Morgan concluded it was not worth the necessary
sacrifice of his men to storm Fort Clay. Consequently Gilt-
ner's brigade was ordered to flank the city, which was done
by passing through back streets and along the outskirts.
While making this movement the Federals cannonaded us
from the fort ; the balls, however, shrieked harmlessly over
our heads. It was amusing to see the column of Federal
prisoners, on foot, dodging and zigzagging to escape the
hurtling cannon balls. It was unkind in the garrison at
Fort Clay to bombard and frighten their brothers in blue.
We soon struck the Georgetown Turnpike, behind Fort
Clay, and found a part of the Second Brigade already there.
With Giltner's brigade in advance the division moved on
to Georgetown, where it went into camp. On this march,
needing a horse, I took two or three comrades, who also
wanted to " trade " horses, and leaving the turnpike we wan-
dered through the pastures until we were nearly a mile from
the road. We came upon an elegant mansion, inhabited by
a wealthy and staunch Southern family, who welcomed us
most kindly. The gentlemanly lord of the manor told us
that in a distant pasture of his demesne, in an old stable, we
would find several fine horses which he had hidden from the
Federals. He said we were welcome to the horses, but that
it would be dangerous for him to accompany us to the iso-
lated stable, as, if discovered, he would be sent to a Federal
prison for aiding and abetting Morgan's men.
We found the horses, and I secured a beautifully gaited
148 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
animal, which I rode until the close of the war. Returning
to the house we were invited to dinner, and although it was a
risk, our column having gone beyond, toward Georgetown,
we accepted the invitation. When we had entered that ele-
gant home and found ourselves in the presence of several
young ladies my first thought was one of pride in my fine
clothes, taken from the Federal officer's trunk at Mt. Sterling.
One of the ladies, Miss Maria Bauman, kindly promised to
write a letter to my home people, living on the banks of la
belle river, within the enemy's lines. After the war had
closed I found that she had written the letter as promised,
describing my condition, appearance, etc. I have ever since
cherished the memory of that gracious lady, but I have never
seen her since that day — when on the march from Lexington
Two of the Fourth Kentucky boys were captured on that
march while scouting for horses and other things — Wm. H.
Bradley and Fletcher Murphy.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 149
Georgetown — Demonstration Toward Frankfort — The
March to Cynthiana.
AT Georgetown the good Southern people generously-
supplied our wants, and our soldiers were bountifully
fed. General Morgan established his headquarters at the
principal hotel. Unfortunately many of the officers and men
were " treated" too liberally to bluegrass whisky, which
affected them disgracefully.
The streets were full of ladies, negroes and Confederate
cavalrymen, and I regret to record the fact that while we
were partaking of the generous hospitality of the town some
of the soldiers were pillaging it.
A number of young ladies from a neighboring seminary
came to take a look at the rebels, but I did not think we
presented a very creditable appearance — at that time.
About 2 o'clock in the afternoon we moved out on the
Frankfort Road, Giltner's brigade in advance. After march-
ing a few miles in the direction of the capital we were halted,
and General Morgan called a council of war. Famous
" Uncle " Ben Robertson, chief guide, had much to say in the
council. The consultation resulted in a countermarch to
I omitted to mention in the proper place that Major Cheno-
weth had rejoined the column at Winchester. Captain Bart
Jenkins was recalled from Frankfort, and the command then
moved out upon the Cynthiana and Paris turnpike.
General Morgan had changed his plans. The route now
determined upon was via Cynthiana, Augusta and Maysville,
thence to Big Sandy River, thence to Virginia. The change
of route was made because of superior forces, understood to
be at Frankfort, Danville, Camp Nelson, etc.
We marched all the afternoon and all night, the Second
Brigade in front, thrown there by the reversal of our line of
march. The prisoners were still in charge of the First
150 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
Brigade, Giltner's, and impeded our march very much, as we
had to march slowly behind them — they being on foot.
At Newtown we took the straight road for Cynthiana.
Adopting his usual tactics General Morgan sent a detach-
ment to make a demonstration toward Lexington to mystify
the Federals. Occasionally there came a false alarm, that
the enemy was pressing our rear. A battalion would form
to check the supposed attack. Then would come an order
to "close up." Thus we passed the night — weary, sleepy
and going, going, going, always going.
At Leesburg we were told that there were about five hun-
dred Federals at Cynthiana, and that the trains were bringing
During the temporary halt, before daylight, nearly every
man was asleep. With the exception of the vedettes and
advanced guard the silent horsemen dismounted and sank
upon the ground, with their small arms buckled around them
and their guns in hand, and fell asleep sooner than if they
had been in downy beds at home. Blessed sleep ! To
illustrate how delirious a man may become when for days
and nights, in succession, he has been deprived of " Nature's
sweet restorer," I here give my experience— that of others
being similar. On long raids, such as the one of which I
am now writing, a cavalryman sleeps much in his saddle, but it
is a fitful, broken, unsatisfactory sleep. During the march
on that June night I became so desperate as to seriously
think of withdrawing from the column to lie down by the
road-side — being willing to risk capture, perhaps death, for
the sake of obtaining a brief, uninterrupted hour of blessed
sleep. At lucid intervals, however, I resorted to all manner
of expedients to keep awake.
When we had halted that morning I hitched my horse
beside that of Colonel Pryor, and immediately sank into
oblivion ; but within fifteen minutes I was on my feet, think-
ing that the column was moving. In a state of semi-
unconsciousness I wandered about in search of my horse,
finally finding myself in the midst of the train of buggies and
carriages containing the wounded. I then " pulled myself
together," and for the first time realized that the command was
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 151
not moving at all. I reasoned that by retracing my steps I
might find Colonel Pryor's horse, and then easily my own.
In my yet dazed condition it did not occur to me that the
two horses being together I could find my own as easily as
that of Colonel Pryor. I finally found them where in my
demented condition I had gotten up and wandered away
1 52 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
The First Battle at Cynthiana —The Federal Commander
Killed — Defeat and Capture of the Enemy — The Burning
of THE Town.
" And if to-day in blinding mist
The Southland's tears are shed,
It is not that her cause was lost,
But that her sons are dead."
AT the dawn of the long summer day, Saturday, June nth,
we arrived at the forks of the road, probably within
three or four miles of Cynthiana.
General Morgan promptly made dispositions for battle,
planning especially for the capture of the Federals in the
town. He sent the Second Brigade by the right-hand road
to cross the river above Cynthiana, in order to gain the
enemy's rear. Giltner's brigade was ordered to move directly
upon the town.
When we had reached the hill overlooking the town on the
west side, we saw that the enemy had received an intimation
of our coming and were prepared to receive us. They were
formed behind a stone fence, a most excellent fortification.
Hearing the guns of the Second Brigade, the signal for
attack, we flanked the fence and, after a brief skirmish, fought
principally by Lieutenant H. H. Adcock, commanding Com-
pany E, Fourth Kentucky, the enemy fled precipitately across
the bridge, seeking shelter in the town. We captured about
seventy-five of them before they reached the bridge, and then
charged into the town. When a town is attacked under such
circumstances there is no time for dilatory tactics. What-
ever is to be done, if well done, must be done quickly. The
Federals made a spirited resistance, but they were soon driven
into the depot buildings, where a hot fight was waged until
their commander, Colonel Berry, was killed. They also
sought refuge in the court-house and other buildings, but the
Confederates charged into the strongholds, firing rapidly and
all the while " yelling the infernal rebel yell." The Federals
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 153
soon threw down their arms and surrendered unconditionally,
about five hundred of them. It was yet early in the morn-
ing, not later than 8 o'clock. We now had on our hands two
regiments of prisoners, and before the going down of the sun
we were destined to be handicapped by many more.
While the fight was going on a fire broke out in a stable I
think, but whether it was the result of accident or design I
never knew. The Confederates were very sorry, as the citi-
zens were friendly to them. The flames were not subdued
until nearly all the business houses and a number of other
valuable buildings had been consumed. The citizens were
too badly demoralized to do much, and the Confederates did
not have time, as they almost immediately had to fight another
During the fight we observed a number of Federals
running from the town, down the river, apparently endeavor-
ing to escape by way of Kellar's Bridge, a mile below town.
Colonel Ed Trimble was ordered to the bridge to cut off
retreat by that route.
Although Chenoweth, Jenkins and Willis, with their
detachments, had rejoined Giltner's brigade, Morgan's cavalry
did not consist of more than one thousand fighting men when
we reached Cynthiana.
154 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
The Second Battle at Cynthiana — A Desperate Combat —
The Capture of General Hobson — The Fatal Encamp-
ment on the Wrong Side of Licking River.
" Hurrah! to the battle!
They form into line :
The swords, how they rattle !
The guns, how they shine ! "
WHILE our men were scattered about the town, partak-
ing of the hospitality of the citizens — generous,
although their town was burning down — Colonel Trimble
sent in a courier from Kellar's Bridge, announcing that he
had met a strong force of Federals whom he was powerless
to hold in check.
Giltner quickly withdrew his brigade from the town and
double-quicked it to Trimble's support. The Fourth Ken-
tucky, led by Colonel Pry or, went by way of the Fair
Grounds, and the line of battle was soon formed — Chenoweth
and Trimble on the right, Clay's battalion, commanded by
Holliday, and Johnson's battalion, commanded by Jackson,
in the center, and the Fourth Kentucky on the left — not more
than five hundred and fifty men in all. It was then about 9
o'clock. The Federals, in gallant array, moved upon us,
through open fields, their line about as long as ours, but
with heavy reserves behind. It was a pretty cerulean picture,
but we did not remain in our position to admire the imposing
array of blue. With a yell our line charged and drove them
back and down the slope to the bluffs of Licking River, where
they reinforced their line and made a stubborn stand. The
fighting was close and deadly, the enemy plainly outnumber-
ing us two to one, possibly more. Their evolutions and
steadiness under the galling fire of our unerring riflemen
indicated that they were brave, disciplined troops, commanded
by a gallant and trained officer.
The combat became most desperate. On the slope I saw
Jesse Fallis, of the Fourth Kentucky, stretched on his back,
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 155
his feet to the foe, his face ghastly pale in death. Lieutenant
Parker Dean, of Scott's company, was also killed. Six of
Clay's battalion fell side by side. Major Diamond lost a
brother. There were many others, killed and wounded,
whose names I can not now recall.
Our men marched desperately up to the blue line, and at
' ' point blank range ' ' poured a deadly fire into the compact
ranks of the brave Federals. That being more than they
could endure the enemy fell back just beyond a deep railroad
cut, in a bend of the river — an extraordinarily strong position,
the river encircling them like a crescent, the railroad cut in
their front. While advancing upon this new stronghold we
passed over at least fifty of their dead and wounded. The
situation now looked decidedly "blue." The Fourth Ken-
tucky, the largest regiment, was out of ammunition and the
.greater part of it had to be withdrawn. Then we undertook
to play a "bluff" game. The Fourth Kentucky mounted
their horses, and with empty guns in plain view of the enemy
they went through evolutions and made demonstrations to
impress the Federals with the belief that we were preparing
to execute a grand coup de main.
Where was General Morgan ? Where was the Second
Brigade ? Since moving out of town we had neither seen nor
heard of them. L-ike Napoleon at Waterloo we were longing
for Grouchy — for Morgan. We suspected, however, that he
was maneuvering to fall upon the enemy at another point,
probably in the rear. We fervently hoped that his coming
would not be long delayed — and, as the sequel proved, he
■did come in "the nick of time," and to the enemy unex-
Chenoweth, Johnson, Holliday and Trimble gallantly and
persistently continued the fight, and being unable to cross
the railroad cut they fought across it at close range. The
enemy, with fixed bayonets, attempted to charge them, but
were repulsed again and again.
Courier after courier was sent to General Morgan, advising
him of our desperate situation ; that we were fighting a
largely superior force of gallant troops, who were evidently
commanded by a sensible and trained officer ; that the Fourth
156 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
Kentucky, being out of ammunition, had been withdrawn,,
and that the remaining battalions, reduced to about two
hundred and fifty fighting men, were also rapidly exhausting
the contents of their cartridge boxes while desperately hold-
ing the grim, determined enemy at bay. We knew Mor-
gan would come ; but when ? Would he come too late ?
Our little band could neither flank the enemy nor get to
his rear, on account of the interposition of the river, the
banks of which formed a precipice from seventy-five to one
hundred feet high.
To add to our anxiety and suspense a train of cars arrived
from toward Cincinnati — whistling, puffing and blowing —
ominous sounds. A small detachment was sent to ascertain
whether it brought reinforcements. The officer in command
was instructed to use his best discretion — to intercept the
train, fire into, delay it or capture it. The train was captured,,
but it brought no additional troops. It was freighted, how-
ever, with three hundred cavalry horses, bridles, saddles, etc.,.
sent, we surmised, for the purpose of mounting the force we
were fighting, who expected to need them in a contemplated
pursuit of defeated Confederates.
Our line was withdrawn a short distance while the horse-
holders sent in their ammunition. The men were cautioned
to reserve their fire and to cease calling to their comrades for
cartridges. Just at this time, had the enemy known our real
condition and made a determined charge, it is more than
probable they could have run over us — probably have captured
us — but, hurrah ! hurrah ! hurrah ! A small column of cav-
alry is seen approaching the enemy's rear. They wear the
gray. We recognize the oriflamme of Morgan. There arose
a tremendous yell, and it was,
" Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more ;
Or close the wall up with- our Southern dead."
The entire line made a cyclonic rush toward the blue
phalanx of infantry, but halted upon seeing a white flag
borne by a Federal officer, accompanied by Major Holliday.
The major had been missed, but it was not known that he
had been captured.
The object of the truce flag was to ask for a cessation of
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 157
hostilities, while a consultation should be held in regard to
the surrender of the Federal troops. The conference was
very brief, lasting probably not more than ten minutes. As
usual, General Morgan was magnanimous, and granted to
General E- H. Hobson, the Federal commander, liberal terms
of capitulation. The officers were allowed to retain their
swords, and the officers and men were not to be despoiled of
their private property. General Hobson surrendered his
entire command, about one thousand men.
General Hobson was a large, fine looking man, pleasant and
•courteous, and not a stranger to many of our troops. Morgan
had surrendered to his troops in Ohio. General Hobson was
a man for whom Morgan's men always entertained a high
respect, knowing him to be a gentleman and a gallant, chival-
The enemy stacked their guns, which were rifled muskets,
with bayonets fixed. With the exception of many of the men
who carried Enfield rifles, our soldiers abandoned their own
guns and took those of the enemy in order to utilize the Fed-
eral ammunition. The soldiers of the Fourth Kentucky,
almost without exception, were armed with Enfield rifles, the
same they had captured from the One Hundreth Ohio
Infantry at Limestone, Tenn. They were much attached to
the gun and were loath to throw it away. Soldier-like the}'
trusted to luck, hoping that the vicissitudes of war would
soon throw some Enfield cartridges into their hands, a fatal
mistake, as the sequel, the next morning's battle at Cynthi-
ana, proved. My recollection is that a positive order was
issued for the men to throw away the Enfields and take the
Federal muskets, but the order was not inforced. The
cavalrymen naturally looked askance at an infantry musket
with a bayonet attachment.
The prisoners were placed in charge of Cassell's battalion
and moved out on the Augusta Road. They were afterward in
charge of Colonel Greenwood, the officer with big spectacles,
the famous " torpedo man."
We now had about one thousand and three hundred prison-
ers and not more than one thousand fighting men. Giltner's
brigade returned to Cynthiana, passed through the town and
158 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
took position a short distance beyond on the Paris Pike, scouts
having reported that a Federal force was approaching from
Taking all the circumstances in consideration, probably
any other chieftain than Morgan would have thought discre-
tion the better part of valor and forthwith have retired from
Kentucky to his base, far away in blessed old Virginia.
The men were broken down by long marches, loss of sleep
and much hard fighting. Not more than eight hundred or
one thousand weary, partially unarmed men could be depended
upon to fight three thousand fresh troops, with artillery, said
to be advancing upon us by two roads ; besides the whole
State was garrisoned with legions of well armed Federals,
bountifully supplied with quartermaster and commissary
stores, necessary to the effectiveness of any army. Notwith-
standing the gloomy, depressing situation, General Morgan
intimated his inclination to remain at Cynthiana and fight
the fresh hosts advancing upon him. However, I have
thought that General Morgan was not altogether to blame for
remaining in that position until the next morning. Soon
after nightfall I inadvertently overheard a coterie of officers,
high in command, discussing the situation, holding an
informal council of war. It was stated that General Morgan
had reconsidered his resolution and suggested to his officers
the advisability of withdrawing the command from its perilous
position ; at least of removing it across Licking River, and
beyond the immediate vicinity of Cynthiana. In the light of
subsequent events, the scene and conversation of that small
group of officers became indelibly impressed upon the tablets
of my memory. It was a calm, weird scene. The troops
were nearly all lying down, ' ' the weary to sleep, the wounded
to die." I, too, was reclining upon the bluegrass sward,
unobserved by the officers who were standing near, their
forms clearly outlined against my canopy — the sky. They
talked in subdued tones, but I could hear distinctly every word
said. To my surprise, the leading spokesman ridiculed the
idea of moving the command that night, and the others
readily agreed with him that the men must have a night's
rest. They argued that the weary soldiers would be abso-
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 159
lutely incapacitated for further active service if not permitted
to rest that night. If the general had suggested a movement
it was then made evident to me that he had been opposed by
leading officers in a council of war, and had acquiesced to
their view of the situation. For this I have always blamed
him. He was in command ; his authority was supreme, and
his suggestion of a movement that night was founded upon
sound military policy. We should not have been permitted
to sleep all night while an overwhelming force of the enemy
was moving upon us, and — the Lacking River was behind us.
Giltner's brigade was placed in position on the Paris Turn-
pike, near the Kimbrough mansion, on an elevation which
commanded a view of the road several hundred yards in our
front ; the Fourth Kentucky was immediately on the left of
the road, facing toward Paris ; Major Holliday's (Clay's) bat-
talion was on the opposite side of Kimbrough's house, on the
right hand side of the road. These two battalions slept on
their arms, in line of battle, all night. The battalions of
Chenoweth, Johnson, Trimble and Jessee lay on their arms,
by their horses, a short distance in the rear. The Second
Brigade, I think, was across the river, a mile or more away,
guarding the Leesburg Road.
160 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
The Third Battle at Cynthiana — The Confederates Defeated
and Stampeded— Many Captured — Death in the Licking
River— Narrow Escape of General Morgan and a Remnant
of His Command— The Confederate Forcf, Cut in Twain,
Retreats from the State by Two Routes— The Federal
Prisoners Paroled — The Bummer— Results of the Raid.
" On the low hills to the westward,
The consul fixed his eye ;
And saw the swarthy storm of dust
Rise fast along the sky ;
And nearer, fast and nearer,
Doth the red whirlwind come ;
And louder still and still more loud,
From underneath that rolling cloud,
Is heard the trumpet's war-note proud,
The trampling and the hum."
EMORABLE Sunday morning— June 12,1864! The
culmination of the Iliad of our tribulations. Amid
the peaceful harmonies of nature on the Sabbath day,
instead of church bell chimes we hear the war trumpet and
the clangor of arms. We see the carpet of bluegrass sward
and the waters of Licking River reddened by the blood of
Kentuckians, fighting on and for their natal soil.
"Down they go, the brave young riders;
Horse and foot together fall ;
Like the plowshare in its furrow
Through them plows the Northern ball."
Before the dawn of that Sunday morning I had been lying
on the ground, soundly sleeping, immediately to the left of
the turnpike, and was awakened by the rumble of artillery
and the tramp of Federal cavalry. The ominous sound came
rushing on, and at early dawn our weary cavalrymen were
once more in battle line to contend with the fresh host so
rapidly bearing down upon them.
Captain Warren Montfort hastened to awake General Mor-
gan ; Johnson's and Jessee's battalions took positions on the
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 161
left of the Fourth Kentucky ; Captain Guerrant formed the
right wing by placing Chenoweth and Trimble on Holliday's
right. Before these preparations had been completed the
enemy, in overwhelming numbers, were upon us. They
rode up to within a few hundred yards, dismounted and
charged, but were driven back. They then sent a large force
right and left to flank us. Being nearly surrounded our line
fell back a distance of three or four hundred yards.
General Morgan then came upon the field at the head of
Kirkpatrick's and Bowles' battalions, and sent one of them
to the right, the other to the left, to repel the Federal flank-
ing columns. The Fourth Kentucky, with empty guns,
undertook to hold the enemy's center in check until the
other battalions could mount their horses. Kirkpatrick's
and Bowles' mounted battalions were too small to even
momentarily delay the large flanking forces, and our whole
command was soon forced back into the streets of the town,
routed and demoralized. The confusion was indescribable —
pandemonium reigned supreme. There was much shooting,
swearing and yelling — some from sheer mortification were
The Fourth Kentucky, dismounted, was in a worse predica-
ment than the other battalions. Their horses, held in
Augusta Street, had been stampeded by numerous cavalry-
men dashing through the column before the boys had fallen
back to them. The enemy came on in the form of a crescent,
and cut off retreat by the only two avenues of escape — the
Augusta Road and the Lacking River Bridge. The only
thing left was to take to the river, the passage of which was
dangerous, and the more so because of an exposure to a piti-
less fire from the enemy. Many poor fellows were killed or
captured in the town, and many more, men and horses, were
killed, wounded or drowned in the river. There seemed to
be no thought of surrender. Nothing but visions of cruel,
loathsome prisons could have nerved those soldiers, brave as
they were, to risk almost certain death in the Lacking River
rather than to surrender.
General Morgan had ordered a retreat by way of the
Augusta Road, and he and a number of men escaped by that
162 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
route just before the point of the blue crescent swung into
the road. The prisoners had also been sent ahead on the
While falling back on the town I saw General Morgan, on
his step-trotting roan horse, going toward the Augusta Road.
He was " skimming" along at an easy pace, looking up at
our broken lines and — softly whistling. I was glad to see
him getting away, for had he been captured he would doubt-
less have fared badly — as the Federals had not forgiven him
for his daring escape from the Ohio prison.
Luck came my way. While in the town I drifted about
here and there, and was thinking of taking the river route
to freedom or death, when a tall, fine-looking officer, a
stranger to me, at the head of a small squad of men dashed
up and said that he knew the topography of the country, and
that he could flank the enemy without crossing the river.
He spoke rapidly, scarcely halting. Ten or fifteen of us fol-
lowed him. His name was Berry, a lieutenant of the Second
Brigade, I think. I can not describe the route we took. I
had never been in Cynthiana before, and I have never been
there since that awful morning. Berry " quadruple-quicked "
us through obscure streets and by devious and isolated path-
ways until finally we crossed a deep, narrow stream,
tributary to Licking River, called Indian Creek, as I remem-
ber. We galloped across bluegrass pastures and through
woodlands until we came into the Augusta Road, some
distance in rear of General Morgan's rapidly-retreating col-
umn. Hurrying on we overtook Captain Warren Montfort,
of Jessee's battalion, who was in command of Morgan's rear
Confederates and prisoners alike were going at a quick-
step march. The prisoners, many of whom had tramped all
the way from Mt. Sterling, sharing our hard marches, were
anxious to be paroled that they might return to their homes.
They were afraid that the Federals would overtake and
capture us before we should have an opportunity to parol
them. I noticed a nice-looking little prisoner, not more than
seventeen or eighteen years of age, limping along, seemingly
in distress. He very gratefully accepted my invitation for
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 1 03
him to get up behind me and ride. I shared my horse with
him until we arrived at Clayvillage, where the prisoners were
paroled. Not having time to give them written parols they
were simply required to hold up their right hands and sol-
emnly swear that they would not take up arms again until
regularly exchanged. The " wholesale-swearing" ceremony
was decidedly ludicrous, and we had little confidence that the
men would be permitted to observe parols of that informal
Nil desperandum ! Notwithstanding the horrors at Cynthi-
ana ; the desperate fighting ; the indescribable scenes in the
town — the enemy on three sides and the Licking River on
the other — the men of General Morgan's retreating column
were cheerful, even merry. Their disagreeable experience
was the fortune of war. There were between two and three
hundred merry cavaliers following the plume of the smiling
Morgan. We were ignorant of the fate of Giltner, Guerrant,
Trimble, Everett, Scott, Barrett and others. We had seen
Trimble's gallant battalion struggling in the river, and were
confident that many, very many, of our comrades were sleep-
ing the sleep of death, and yet we rode on merely saying
" conquiescatin pace ," anxious to get as far away from Cynthi-
ana as possible. We were ' ' bound for Old Virginia once
more,"- and were by no means assured of a safe journey
There was the possibility of being intercepted and forced
to fight again — or run. However, we worried not. We
crossed no bridge before we came to it, and then we burned
it. We knew that we could outrun any Federal cavalry that
might be pursuing us. From Clayvillage we had taken a
northeastern course, passing from Harrison County into
Robertson, thence to Sardis, a small town south of Maysville.
At Sardis I witnessed a scene, similar to others, nearly always
incidental to cavalry raids. A store, stocked with general
merchandise, was being robbed by men who had marched in
advance of the main column. It was enough to bring the
blush of shame to the cheek of any honest cavalier, and was
especially mortifying and humiliating to all proud Kentuck-
ians, and more's the pity we were nearly all Kentuckians.
164 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
We had to halt until the " looters" could be persuaded to
move on. Men of other commands caught the infection, and
doubtless thinking that as " everything was going " they
might as well have a share they entered the store and appro-
priated to themselves all the lighter class of goods that the
other fellows had failed to carry off. It was understood that
the owner of the store was a Union man, and the boys not
having much love for that class of men, especially at that
particular time, thought lex talionis a good motto, and
remembered that inter arma silent leges. The scene was not
without a ludicrous side. Horses were loaded with bolts of
calico, domestic cotton, boots, shoes, millinery goods, even
babies' shoes, and so on, adinfinituiii.
There are strange anomalies in war — especially in a civil
war. To use the language of Victor Hugo :
" One of the most surprising things is the rapid stripping of
the dead after victory ; the dawn that follows a battle always
rises on naked corpses. Who does this? Who sullies the
triumph in this way ? Whose is the hideous, furtive hand
which slips into the pocket of victory ? Who are the villains
dealing their death stroke behind the glory ? Some philoso-
phers, Voltaire among them, assert that they are the very
men who have made the glory ; they say that those who keep
their feet plunder those lying on the ground, and the hero of
the day is the vampire of the night. After all a man has the
right to strip a corpse of which he is the author. We do not
believe it, however ; reaping a crop of laurels and stealing the
shoes of a dead man, or of a live one, either, does not seem
possible from the same hand."
I am inclined to the belief of Voltaire. I know that the
soldiers who plundered the store at Sardis, thoughtless boys
that they were, had shown their gallantry on many a field,
and that they were not criminals in the common acceptation
of the term.
From Sardis we moved at an ordinary pace, not stopping,
however, until we reached the vicinity of Morehead, in
Rowan County. Here, at night, in a large grass field, with-
out unsaddling, we turned our horses loose to graze, and lay
down to rest and sleep, of which we were much in need.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 165
John Callaway, of Gathright's company, and myself were
lying together when a trooper's horse, laden with cavalry
boots and other things, in fact a miniature store, wandered
near us. The night was dark, and we instantly determined
to relieve that horse of at least two pairs of boots. We rea-
soned that the trooper, a stranger to us, had no right to so
many ' ' store goods," and acting quickly we each appropriated
an elegant pair of cavalry boots, luckily securing a tolerably
good fit. We could not conscientiously pillage a store, but
we had no hesitancy in robbing a gay Confederate cavalier
when he had a surplus.
We marched leisurely and uninterruptedly to the Louisa
Fork of Big Sandy River, and up the same, thence into Vir-
ginia, where we learned for the first time of the escape of
Colonel Giltner, with about two hundred men of various
commands, about forty of whom belonged to the Fourth
Giltner's column had traveled a more tortuous route and
encountered more difficulties and dangers than that which
followed Morgan. They had escaped the terrors of Licking
River, but had to fight a cavalry force that had crossed the
bridge and attempted to intercept them on the other shore.
The desperate Confederates fought them with saber and pis-
tol, driving them out of the way Giltner's party then made
a detour from the Leesburg Road, his ranks being constantly
augmented by other small squads running for life. Further
on, this unorganized band was increased by the addition of
Lieutenant-Colonel Alston, Captain Pete Everett and Captain
Castleman with about two hundred and fifty men. They
were mostly unarmed, having lost their guns in the river or
thrown them away, as they had no ammunition. Giltner
directed Castleman and Everett to organize a body of armed
men for a rear guard. Colonel Jessee, who, with a gallant
little band had so bravely covered the rear at the river, was
transferred to the front to command the advance guard.
Colonels Trimble, Johnson and Alston, and Captains Guer-
rant, Scott, Barrett, Candall, Castleman, Everett and other
officers were with Giltner. When he had gone some distance
from Cynthiana, Colonel Giltner detached Jessee and ordered
166 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
him to proceed to Owen and Henry Counties to serve as a
nucleus for the rallying of the scattered clans. Colonel John-
son was sent to the vicinity of Mt. Sterling for the same
Giltner's column marched rapidly through fields and by
unfrequented roads, sometimes on the highways, cutting tel-
egraph wires and dodging Federal troops. They narrowly
escaped from the Federals at Nicholasville and Richmond.
Captain Pete Everett and others had left the column at
Georgetown, and men had continued to fall out all along the
route, until Giltner's force was reduced one-half. Of those
who were left not more than sixty or seventy were armed.
Lieutenant Corbin, of Jessee's command, gallantly commanded
the advance guard, after his chief's departure, and Captain
Tom Barrett much of the time was in command of the rear
guard, a dangerous and responsible position.
With about two hundred men, Colonel Giltner succeeded
in getting out of Kentucky by way of Pennington's Gap in
the Cumberland Mountains. Thus it will be seen that Mor-
gan's cavalry was cut in twain at Cynthiana, the lines of
retreat forming two sides of a triangle, of which Cynthiana
was the apex and the Cumberland Mountains the base.
In this memorable campaign General Morgan had surprised
two Federal forces and captured them ; he had fought Gen-
eral Hobson and captured him and one thousand men. In
turn, General Morgan himself had met with two serious dis-
asters — on the second morning at Mt. Sterling and the second
morning at Cynthiana. He had paroled between twelve and
fifteen hundred prisoners, and had lost In killed, wounded,
captured and missing about one thousand men.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 167
General Morgan's March to Greenville, Tenn.
" Loud neigh the coursers
O'er their heaps of corn,
And ardent warriors
Wait the rising morn."
DURING the months of July and August, subsequent to
the Kentucky campaign, General Morgan chafed at
restraint and was restless under inforced inactivity. It
required time to reorganize his command and for his troopers
to recuperate from the effects of the successes and disasters
that had characterized the fighting on the ' ' dark and bloody
ground." However, during the latter days of August there
was activity in Morgan's camp. Glistening guns, burnished
sabers, gay plumes and pennons fair indicated that the rest-
less chieftain was ready to march against the enemy. No
one seemed to know whither we were going ; but all knew
there would soon be " music in the air," and we impatiently
awaited the sounding of the bugle horn. We had not long
to wait until the general
" Bade his band they should array
For march against the dawning day."
From Virginia we marched into Tennessee and arrived at
Greenville late in the afternoon of September 3, 1864.
It was known that a force of Federals commanded by Gen-
eral Gillem was at Bulls Gap, probably eighteen miles west
Four roads led from Greenville toward Gillem's position —
the Bulls Gap Road running almost due west, the Rogersville
Road northwest, and the Warrensburg and Newport Roads
southwest, the latter two forming a junction about one mile
Giltner's brigade, Captain J. E. Cantrill's detachment and
Captain Pete Everett, commanding, I think, a portion of Gen-
eral Geo. B. Hodge's brigade, were on the Rogersville Road,
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Giltner in advance, probably two miles from town. Bradford,
commanding Vaughn's Tennesseeans, was on the Bulls Gap
Road, two miles from town, and Captain Walters with a
detachment of the Sixteenth Georgia, about fifty men, was on
the Warrensburg Road. There was no one on the Newport
Cassell's battalion and the artillery were on an eminence in
the eastern suburbs of the town. General Morgan established
his headquarters at the home of his friend, Mrs. Williams, in
A careful study of the disposition of the troops and of the
following diagram will enable the reader to understand sub-
Giltner's headquarters were also established at a house, a
neat cottage, occupied by a pleasant and hospitable lady,
named Vestal, I think. Like General Morgan and staff,
Giltner and his military family were inclined to luxurious
habits, fond of "square meals" and of sleeping on "goose
hair." At this time Colonel Giltner, Captain Guerrant, Cap-
tain Barney Giltner and myself were the only members of
the " family " present. Captain Henry T Stanton was at
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 169
Abingdon, Captain Peyton Miller was temporarily adjutant
of the Fourth Kentucky, Captain J. J. McAfee was perform-
ing the duties of adjutant-general of the Hodge brigade,
Lieutenant H. T. Anderson was at the general's headquarters,
Brainard Bay less was in prison, and Charley Carter had gone
The night was very dark and it rained almost incessantly.
170 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Morgan Betrayed — The Woman — General, Giuem's March.
THE woman who had betrayed General Morgan was the
daughter-in-law of his friend and hostess, Mrs. Will-
iams. The general was unaware of the fact that the young
woman was unfriendly to the South. Pretending to be
friendly, she had ample time and opportunity to ascertain our
strength, the location of the troops and the fatal fact of the
unpicketed Newport Road. She was certainly a remarkable
woman, decisive, prompt and courageous. Quickly compre-
hending the situation, she resolved to betray her mother's
guest, the handsome Confederate chieftain, whose gentle-
manly instincts and chivalrous regard for all women precluded
any thought of treachery on the part of the " fair Greek
bringing' gifts. ' '
Accounts are conflicting as to the time when she left the
house. Some say that she left the supper table quietly and
without remark, while others think she remained within the
house until after the general had retired for the night. She
must, however, have left early in the evening, as she is known
to have reached Gillem's headquarters about 10 o'clock. She
evidently had the assistance of emissaries. The town being
hostile to the Confederacy, doubtless some bushwhacker
informed her of the unguarded Newport Road. There were
women in the town, wives of Federal partisan officers and
bushwhackers, who had achieved unenviable fame as spies ;
among them the Amazonian mail carrier, Mrs. David Fry, who
had been previously restricted to the limits of Greenville by
special order issued by Colonel Giltner. It is therefore plain
that the betrayer of General Morgan could command the
services of willing male and female coadjutors in her
treacherous scheme. Some of the Federal soldiers said that
two women went to Gillem's headquarters. That may pos-
sibly be true, and it is more than probable that the Williams
woman was accompanied by a male companion, during a part,
at least, of her nocturnal pilgrimage through excessive dark-
A'EXTC "CA'J ' CA VALIERS IX DIXIE. 171
ness. rain and mud, from Greenville to Bulls Gap. The con-
temporaneous opinion, however, was that she made the trip
unattended. That opinion was based mainly upon her own
vauutful declaration, she claiming all the honor, such as it
was. Xot having much confidence in a woman of her guild.
I accept her statement arm gr.i>:o sa!:s.
The Federal general eagerly listened to the woman s story
and promptly availed himseif of the valuable information
given him. By n o"clock his column, about two thousand
strong, was en rout-: to Greenville.
At some point on the road, I know not where, Gilleni
detached one hundred and fifty or two hundred men from the
Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry and sent them across the
country to the Warreusburg and Xewport Roads, with orders
to make a forced march and to charge the town from the Xew-
port Road and surround the square in which was located the
Williams mansion. The object, of course, was to either kill
or capture General Morgan.
Giilem was eager, alert, expeditious and hopeful of success.
It was an opportunity not to be lost. If successful, fame and
promotion would undoubtedly be his. It would be a proud
feather in his cap. the capture of the famous " wizard of the
saddle." General John H. Morgan.
The detachment of Tennesseans was admirably adapted to
Gi'.lem s purpose. Being natives of the locality even." man
was familiar with the roads and by-paths and acquainted with
the town of Greenville.
Giilem. with his main force, moved on the main road from
Bulls Gap toward Greenville, intending to make a feint on
Bradford and engage that officer's attention while the detach-
ment oi the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry should be perform-
ing its mission in the town. The plan succeeded beyond the
Federal general's most sanguine expectations. When the
attack was made, Bradford's men. pickets and all, were
apparently asleep, and what Giilem intended as a feint
proved to be a rout to Bradford's sleepy, surprised and
demoralized Tennesseans. Had any one of the Kentucky
battalions been on that road there would have been a fight.
and the tragedy of the morning, possibly would have been
averted and this history differently written.
172 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
General Morgan Surprised — Confusion in the Camps — The
General Missing — Uncertainty Regarding His Fate —
Retreat on the Jonesboro Road — Captain McAfee, Under
a Flag of Truce, Finds the General's Dead Body in Green-
AT about 6 o'clock on Sunday morning Giltner's little
military family sat down to an elaborate breakfast,
generously served by the sympathetic hostess. While
leisurely eating and discussing the probable events of the
day, anathematizing the rain and gloomy weather and com-
miserating the uncomfortable situation of the troops in
camps, we heard firing across the country in the direction of
Bradford's Tennesseans. We were not much startled — a
soldier being accustomed to hearing firing at unexpected
times and places. We thought Bradford's men were firing
off their wet guns. That delusion, however, was soon dis-
pelled, as the firing increased in volume and seemed to be
nearing Greenville. We anxiously turned our eyes toward
the town, expecting the arrival of a staff officer with orders.
Again there was a furious volley, evidently at Greenville.
Still no orders. Colonel Giltner then assumed the responsi-
bility of ordering the bugle to sound " boots and saddles,"
and then awaited orders. None came. Alas ! we did not
know. General Morgan had issued his last order. The
inquiry went along the waiting column : " What can be the
matter ? " " Why do we not receive orders ? " The suspense
was indescribably trying. Finally Colonel Giltner quietly
remarked to his officers, " Gentlemen, orders or no orders,
I am going to double-quick my brigade to Greenville." We
had scarcely begun the movement when a breathless soldier
dashed up to the colonel and delivered a verbal order,
emanating from — he did not know whom, that we were to
march quickly to Greenville. This order was irregular and
under ordinary circumstances would not be obeyed — a verbal
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 173
order not being recognized unless delivered by a member of
the staff or some commissioned officer. However in this
case it made no difference — we were going any way.
We were making a rapid march, stimulated by the firing
in our front, when a young officer met us, saying he came
from Colonel D. Howard Smith with orders that we should
join him on the Jonesboro Road. The messenger said the
enemy were in possession of the town and that General Mor-
gan was missing. About this time we heard firing east of
town, on the Jonesboro Road, indicating that our troops
were in full retreat. Everett and Cantrill, who had been
encamped between us and town, were gone — we knew not
whither. Desiring to unite with Colonel Smith, who now
seemed to be in command, we impressed a guide and ordered
him to lead us by the straightest, most practicable route
across the country to the Jonesboro Road. We followed the
guide a mile or more through fields, bushes and woodland,
and then he left us — lost. Desultory firing was heard further
and further from Greenville toward Rheatown, on the Jones-
boro Road, and all the while we were rambling about over a
villainous country, inhabited by " Union bushwhackers,"
who, even if so inclined, were apparently too ignorant to
understand what we wanted or to give us intelligent informa-
tion or directions. After much tribulation we finally emerged
from " the wilderness," striking the Jonesboro Road, just in
xear of the Hodge brigade, and between it and the enemy.
Everett's men could give us little information as to the fate
of General Morgan. Nobody seemed to know anything.
Morgan was missing, probably captured, possibly killed;
yet there was a chance that he had escaped.
Everett and Cantrill said the Federals were in the town
when they arrived there, and they were compelled to move
around it. They found all the troops gone, but, nevertheless,
they formed east of town and exchanged shots with the
enemy. Bob Scott, General Hodge's clerk in the adjutant-
general's office, was killed, shot through the head. A gal-
lant soldier of Johnson's battalion, named Lail, was also
killed. He was the young soldier who captured a Federal
dispatch bearer, near Richmond, Ky., while on the retreat
174 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
from Cynthiana. Another soldier, whose name I do not
know, was killed at the same time. Everett and Cantrill
would have continued the fight, but withdrew in obedience
to orders from Smith and Bradford, who were retreating
rather precipitately toward Rheatown. Colonel Giltner was
very angry and declared that the retreat was a shame. The
troops also grumbled, and wondered why we continued to
retreat. Some swore that we were fleeing from a shadow,
and nearly all were of the opinion that a desperate resistance
should have been made just behind Greenville until the
troops could have been concentrated there. Bradford's Ten-
nesseans, however, were so demoralized that it is doubtful
whether Colonels Smith and Bradford could have checked
the current flowing to the rear.
When we had reached the road we found no one to give
us orders. Giltner, protesting the while, slowly followed in
rear of the retreating troops, his brigade being the rear
guard. The colonel sent me forward to find Colonel Smith,
or whoever was in command, and to inform him of the
whereabouts of Giltner's brigade. I was also ordered to say
to the commanding officer that Colonel Giltner would respect-
fully suggest that, as the entire command was then on the
Jonesboro Road, the retreat should be discontinued and that
the division should right-about-face and march back to Green-
ville, if possible, to ascertain the fate of General Morgan.
But that if the retreat must continue, he desired to send a
flag of truce to Greenville to bring off the general's body, if
I found Colonel Smith, who directed me to tell
Giltner to double-quick his brigade toward Jonesboro, say-
ing he had information that the enemy was marching on our
right flank. He assented, however, to Giltner's proposition
in regard to the flag of truce. When I delivered Colonel
Smith's order Giltner expressed disgust, and declared that
he did not believe any Federals of consequence were even
Colonel Giltner directed Captain J. J. McAfee to take four
men from the Fourth Kentucky, and several others, I do not
remember whom nor how many, and to proceed to Green-
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 175
ville and ascertain, if possible, the fate of Morgan. If the
general had been killed McAfee was to request General Gil-
lem to let him have the body, that it might be forwarded to
Mrs. Morgan at Abingdon. We halted at Rheatown and
awaited the return of the flag of truce. About midnight a
courier from McAfee announced that he had found General
Morgan dead in Greenville, the body laid out in Mrs. Will-
iams' house, and that there were no Federals in the town.
176 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
The Death of Morgan — The Garden Scene — Murder in the
Vineyard — Arrival of General Basil W. Duke and Colonel
Dick Morgan — Burial of the Dead Chieftain at Abingdon
— Some Reflections.
" He woke to die midst flame, and smoke,
And shout, and groan, and saber stroke."
EVEN at this remote day it is with sad and halting pen
that I attempt to record the events connected with the
tragedy enacted at Greenville Sunday morning, September 4,
1864 — the death of Morgan, the dauntless cavalier, the
flower of our knighthood, the pride of the cavalry
The following dispatch carried inexpressible sorrow to the
heart of a beautiful and accomplished wife, who had idolized
her gallant and handsome husband, the peerless Morgan.
Headquarters Brigade, Near Rheatown, Tenn.,
September 4, 1864.
Mrs. Generai, Morgan, Abingdon, Va.:
With deep sorrow I have to announce the sad intelligence of your
husband's death. He fell by the hands of the enemy, at Greenville,
this morning. His remains are being brought away under flag of
truce. We all mourn with you in this great affliction. Most respect-
fully, H. L. GlLTNER,
Colonel Commanding Brigade.
Morgan dead ! The Southland mourns ! The enemy rejoices !
A devoted wife is bereaved and the hearts of his cavalrymen
are filled with gloom and unavailing regrets. A horrible Sun-
da5^ morning tragedy disgraces forever the "heavy villain"
in the play. Weeping clouds mingle their tears with those
of the wife so cruelly made a widow ; the echoes of rolling
thunder are blended with the mutterings of the dead chief-
tain's followers, who vow vengeance on the town of Green-
ville and upon the brutal ruffians who, having murdered the
brave, defenseless general, perpetrated unspeakable indigni-
ties upon the helpless, unresisting dead body. Oh, the shame
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 177
of it! The generous-hearted general, whose banner ever
bore the motto, "Clemency belongs to the brave," murdered
by ruffians, who, had they fallen into his hands, would have
received that generous treatment always accorded by a brave
and gentlemanly soldier to a prisoner of war. Yet General
Morgan, alone and defenseless, is basely slain by a Tennessee
mountaineer, a bushwhacker. Such a dastardly tragedy
would have been impossible had General Morgan fallen into
the hands of General Hobson's command. No true, honor-
able soldier killed General Morgan, nor did any officer, worthy
of the name, sanction the horrible, shameful deed.
General Morgan fell in the noonday of his brilliant and
somewhat romantic career, crowned with a warrior's deathless
fame. Those who followed his plume can never forget the
stirring times when, riding far within Federal lines, their
" gray uniform and a strange new flag ' ' greeted the sons of the
morning. Fama. semper vivat.
Surrounding the Williams mansion was a large yard in
which there was a number of trees aUd much shrubbery.
Adjoining the yard was a garden in which was a small,
untrimmed vineyard. The garden, partly inclosed by a high
plank fence, was the scene of the murder of General Morgan.
There "in the pleasant vineyard ground," surrounded by
bloodthirsty foes, the Marion of the civil war, only thirty-
nine years old, showed a brutal, cowardly soldiery how a
brave and honorable Southern cavalier could die. Far away
from the old Kentucky home, among strangers, alone, sur-
rounded by unsympathetic enemies, he died where
"There was lack of woman's nursing,
There was dearth of woman's tears."
Major Williams, a son of the general's hostess, and brother-
in-law of Mrs. Lucy Williams, the woman who betrayed him,
was temporarily serving on the general's staff, and was an
eyewitness to much that occurred in the house and in the
garden. His story was substantially as follows : When the
Federals dashed into the town he ran up-stairs to the gen-
eral's room and cried, "For God's sake, general, get out of
here, the town is full of Yankees! " The general hurriedly
178 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
put on his trousers and socks, threw his pistols over his shoul-
ders, ran down the stairs and out the back door into the thick
foliage of the yard. Seeing Mrs. Williams, as he passed out
the door, he gave a military salute and smilingly said, " Good-
bye, Mrs. Williams, I am all right now." The enemy were
then at the front door. He ran down to the Episcopal Church,
but seeing the street was guarded by soldiers, he turned and
ran back into the garden. The notorious Mrs. Fry and other
fiendish women saw him from their windows, and knowing
him pointed him out to the soldiers, saying, "There he is;
there he goes; that's Morgan, over there in the vineyard!"
The soldiers rode up and began shooting through the grounds.
Being closely pressed, and hearing the soldiers' oaths and
threats, the general stood at bay, and feeling assured that
they meant to kill him he returned their shots until he had
emptied his pistols, and then — threw up his hands and sur-
rendered. Captain Wilcox, of the Thirteenth Tennessee
Cavalry, rode up to the general and received his pistols.
After a moment's conversation, Wilcox rode away While
standing there a defenseless prisoner, a soldier approached
the general and presented his gun. The general exclaimed:
" My God! don't shoot! I am a prisoner!" With an oath, the
cowardly ruffian fired, the ball striking the general full in the
breast, passing through the heart and ranging downward.
The murderer threw the dead body across his horse and gal-
loped along the streets, exulting in his diabolical deed. He
then galloped out to Gillem's quarters, about two miles from
town, and threw the body into a muddy ditch by the road-
That General Morgan was murdered there is not the shadow
of a doubt. The fact that only one ball struck him, and that
at point blank range, the powder burning his body, is, of
itself, proof sufficient, the general's empty pistols being in
the possession of Wilcox. The fellow had no excuse what-
ever for firing. His life was not in danger. The general,
holding up his defenseless hands, asked him not to shoot. A
hostler in a stable near the vineyard said he distinctly heard
the general's words when he surrendered, and that he saw the
man ride up and shoot him. Captains Charles A. Withers and
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 179
L. C. Johnson, of the general's staff, were at first with the
general in the garden. They corroborate the foregoing state-
ments concerning the surrender and murder. While some
members of the general's staff were running hither and
thither, seeking some avenue of escape, Mrs. Williams cried
out to them, "Your brave general lies dead in my vineyard!"
Captain Withers, Captain James Rogers, Captain Harry Clay,
L. C Johnson and probably others of the staff were captured.
No one of them was harmed. The murder of Morgan seemed
to satiate the enemy's thirst for blood.
Captain Withers says that when he found the soldiers were
treating the general's dead body with almost even.- conceiv-
able indignity, he told Gillem that his men were treating the
body like that of a dog, and that Gillem replied : " Ay sir,
and it shall lie there and rot like a dog." Gillem was very
abusive, and rejected and scoffed at even,- appeal of Withers
that he be permitted to care for the body. Finally, however,
Gillem being called away, Colonel Brownlow, who seemed to
be a gentleman, told Withers that he should have the body
and be given an opportunity to prepare it for burial. Brown-
low sent out into the country for the body and had it taken
to Mrs. Williams' house, where Captain Withers and Captain
Rogers, assisted by a negro man, washed and dressed it, Mrs.
Williams and a few gentle-hearted ladies rendering such
assistance as was in their power. As before said, it was here
that Captain McAfee and party, with Giltner's flag of truce,
found the body of Morgan. McAfee had the corpse inclosed
in a neat walnut coffin made in Greenville, and securing a
small one-horse wagon, the only substitute for a hearse he
could find, his little cortege slowly and sadly marched back
to the command encamped near Jonesboro.
General Duke and Colonel Dick Morgan arrived in camp
the da}- after General Morgan was killed. Having been in
prison since the Ohio raid, they had only recently been
exchanged. The general's body was turned over to them.
It was a sad day for Colonel Dick Morgan, the brother, and
General Duke, the brother-in-law of the dead chieftain.
General Duke, Colonel Morgan, Colonel Crittenden, Colonel
Ward, Colonel D. Howard Smith and other officers, with an
180 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
escort from Cantrill's and Cassell's battalions, accompanied
General Morgan's remains to Abingdon, where they were
temporarily interred until opportunity should offer for their
removal to Lexington, Ky.
Colonel D. Howard Smith was criticised, somewhat, for
apparent indecision, irresolution and lack of dash and energy
on that fatal morning at Greenville. Colonel Smith's bravery
and accomplishments as an officer can not be questioned.
He had long been one of General Morgan's trusted lieuten-
ants and a conspicuous officer in nearly all of the general's
most important movements. The situation at Greenville
was peculiar. Colonel Smith, possibly, was unaware of the
location of the several battalions. Much valuable time was
lost before it was known that Morgan was missing. The
command was scattered, some parts of it isolated. Smith had
no means of ascertaining the enemy's force. It took time
to find the several commanders, and in part explain the
situation. It could not be wholly explained because the
fate of Morgan was unknown. Had Colonel Smith recklessly
dashed into the town before the command was concentrated,
and without consultation with his officers, the result might
have been most serious if not disastrous. Any action, how-
ever prompt, could not have saved Morgan. At the first
alarm he was killed. There was really nothing to gain by
attacking the enemy, unless indeed it should be for purposes of
vengeance. When the commanding officer is killed on the
field of battle where all can see, there is always more or less
demoralization. In this instance the chief was the first man
killed, and no one of the command except members of his
staff who were captives knew of the fact. Take it all in all,
I am not aware of any similar military condition in history.
It was the unexpected that happened to us that Sunday
morning. Again I am constrained to exclaim : Bella !
bella! horrida bella!
General Morgan has been criticised for being in town
away from his command. In one sense the criticism is just.
It is unmilitary in a commanding officer to be away from his
troops when in the presence of the enemy, and history is
replete with instances where generals have come to grief by
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 181
disregarding that law. In General Morgan's case there are
extenuating circumstances. In point of fact, he was not away
from his command. He was in the midst of it, surrounded
by it. His position was apparently safe. No human fore-
sight could have foreseen what actually happened, nor
dreamed of the combination of circumstances leading thereto,
and, alas ! poor Morgan trusted too much to the fair
Greeks bringing gifts, and was ignorant of the unpicketed
Newport Road. The town, the home of Andrew Johnson,
was intensely disloyal to the South, and, maledictions upon
her, a woman heartlessly betrayed him. I know of my per-
sonal knowledge that General Morgan seemingly took every
precaution to guard against surprise. In my capacity of
clerk, I had business with Captain Withers, his adjutant-
general, which detained me at his headquarters in town
until nearly dark. On my way to Giltner's brigade on the
Rogersville Road, I met the general and his quartermaster,
Major Gassett, about a mile from Greenville. They were
riding rapidly and so was I. When we met the general
greeted me pleasantly, and the recollection of the fact is a
sweet memory to-day, for it was the last time I ever saw him.
I then little dreamed of the tragedy of the morrow. The
thought occurred to me, however, that the general was taking
unusual precautions, it being customary for general officers
to order certain roads picketed and to rely upon the reports
of subordinates that " all is well." When I reached the
brigade and commented on the general's visit, I learned that
he had not only visited the brigade, but that he had ridden
out to the station of the vedettes. I do not know, but I
always have thought that it being dark when he returned to
town, he failed to visit the roads on the left, and felt secure,
Captain Walters doubtless reporting that the roads in that
direction were properly guarded. Really the unpicketed
Newport Road, even if its existence were known to General
Morgan, would not have been considered important, as it
scarcely extended toward the enemy's position. The woman
did it all.
182 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
General Marshall and Tom Hayden.
NE afternoon the Fourth Kentucky, being in advance,
had halted after crossing a mountain, waiting for
the rest of the brigade to "close up." General Marshall
riding up from the rear stopped at the head of the regiment,
where for the first time he saw Tom Hayden, the bugler.
Now Tom had belonged to a brass band before the war, and
when he went into the army he took his cornet horn along
to keep in practice. He was an accomplished musician, and
could play on almost any kind of instrument. Colonel Gilt-
ner knowing his accomplishments appointed him bugler.
Tom neglected to learn the various regulation cavalry
"calls," and usually, when sounding reveille, boots and sad-
dles, etc., he would simply play some popular air, a favorite
being " Sweet Ellen Bayne." The keys were frequently out
of order, and often it was difficult to blow the bugle at all.
General Marshall examined Tom's horn, and then pleasantly
commanded him to sound the " calls." Tom, afraid to con-
fess that he did not know them, said the old horn was out of
order and could not be blown. The general then told him
to whistle the " calls." Tom said he could not whistle. The
general then laughinglj- said that ' ' a bird that could sing
and wouldn't sing should be made to sing," and then he rode
away, much to Tom's relief.
General Marshall and the Saber Drill.
At one time, during Bragg's Kentucky campaign, we were
hustled off to Morehead, Rowan County, to assist General
John H. Morgan in intercepting the Federal general, George
W Morgan, then making his famous retreat from Cumber-
KEXTCCKY C A] 'ALTERS IX DIXIE. 188
The boys had been armed with heavy English sabers,
splendid weapons, but they despised them, and generally
nianaged to " lose " them. While at Morehead, awaiting
developments on the part of the enemy the general concluded
to exercise us in the saber drill. He was a master in the
use of the weapon, and the day being hot and the exercise
being exceedingly wearisome, especially to the right hand
and arm, the boys became so disgusted that they ever after-
ward rebelled against carrying any such weapon, and the
more so because they thought it extremely improbable that
they should ever have any use for it. While the drill was in
progress General Marshall walked up to John Vories and
me and bade us both to employ all our skill and vigor in an
attempt to strike him. In our verdancy we thought that
would be an easy matter — two against one — and we endeav-
ored to be very careful, fearing we might inadvertently
injure the good general : but he parried our thrusts so easily
bv a " simple twist of the wrist." always catching our blades
on the guard of his, that we filially became excited and cut
and slashed at him in a terrific manner, always however,
with the same result, the general standing composedly before
us, and apparently without an effort parrying ever}" cut or
thrust, until at last he stepped back and told us to hold up :
that our d — d awkwardness might make him forget himself
and leave his guard open. That exercise was a revelation to
us of the advantage an expert swordsman would have over
The following is the concluding stanza of a plaintive song
written by Major McKnight:
Ix Pkisox ox Lake Erie.
How many moons will rise and wane.
How many months will langr.ish.
Ere Peace, the white-winged angel, eotnes
To soothe a captive's angvhsh ?
God speed the long'd and prayed for day.
When loved ones, bright and cheer}-.
Shall welcome him aronnd the hearth.
From prison onLake Erie.
184 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Skirmishing for Corn.
During the East Tennessee campaign forage became very
scarce. Burnside's and Longstreet's armies had stripped the
country. At one time, however, while our cavalry was occu-
pying a position at Mooresburg there was a large field of corn
between our line and that of the enemy. There was a race
every morning between the cavalry of each army, both aim-
ing for the same place — the cornfield. If we got there first
a skirmish line was advanced to the front to " warn off the
Yanks" until the boys could fill their sacks with the coveted
corn. Probably on the next morning the boys in blue would
be the "first in the field," when they would practice the same
tactics adopted by us on the previous day. This went on for
a week or more, the skirmishing at times being quite lively.
The; Mud Lark.
When in camp, on short rations, consisting often of noth-
ing more than meager quantities of blue beef and rice, with a
modicum of bread, made of unbolted flour, the soldiers fre-
quently made quiet, stealthy forays into the surrounding
country in search of something for the benefit of stomachs
nearly always in an "unsatisfied-like" condition. On these
excursions the most satisfactory game they could "flush"
was a " mud lark." Now, unsophisticated reader, you must
not think the boys were hunting for a bird that sings in the
meadow and rises with the sun. Not at all. They are simply
on a "still hunt" for an unpoetical, grunting, razor-back
hog, which the high-toned Southern cavalier calls a " mud
lark." Being the private property of loyal citizens there are
strict orders against killing the " larks," and therefore the
" forager " must use much strategy and discretion. He
usually inveigles his " larkship " into some sequestered dale,
where he can be dispatched, skinned and chucked into a bag,
unobserved by the " Lord of the Manor." This proceeding
successfully accomplished the defunct " mud lark " is smug-
gled into camp, and a few choice spirits are invited to the
festal board to enjoy a feast like unto that Charles Lamb
describes in his inimitable " Dissertation of Roast Pig."
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 185
Upon one of these forays I was so fortunate as to have a
"pal" in the person of Clayt. Hartsough, a bold, generous-
hearted Owenton, Ky., boy. We had been quite successful,
and were in the act of skinning a "lark," when suddenly a
fine old Virginia gentleman, mounted on a big bay horse,
appeared on the scene. He was awfully mad, and swore that
he was going immediately to camp to report us. He evi-
dently meant business, but Hartsough being equal to the
emergency promptly instituted "a game of bluff." He
leveled his Enfield rifle at the f. o. V g., and swore he would
shoot him off his horse if he did not forthwith return to his
" fine old ancestral hall," which was in sight, about a quarter
of a mile away. The old gentleman concluding that Clayt.
held the best hand declined to " call him," and we never saw
nor heard of him again.
Sleeping in the Snow.
Not desiring to overburden his horse the cavalryman seldom
carried more than one blanket, and generally having no roof
over his head other than the canopy of the sky, and no couch
other than the earth, it was customary for two or three sol-
diers to " bunk together," using the two or three blankets for
bed and cover. Upon one occasion near Rogersville we went
into camp in an open field, Colonel Pry or, Major Parker and
myself sleeping together. Being a boy and small they put
me in the "middle." We slumbered through the entire night,
unconscious that a heavy snow was falling until at early
dawn, being "crowded" and unusually warm, I drew the
blanket from over my head, thereby letting the cold snow fall
upon the necks of the colonel and major, both of whom being
suddenly awakened by the shock, cried out, "Ugh! ugh!"
Looking out upon the camp I could see no one stirring; every
man was sleeping soundly and comfortably, their snow-covered
forms having the appearance of so many inanimate logs.
That experience convinced me that on a cold winter night
one could have no warmer covering than a snow-blanket.
186 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Whenever there was a suitable snowfall a battle was almost
invariably fought between nearly equal forces of volunteer
troops. These sham battles were no child's play; the charges
and counter-charges being made with grim determination
were often of a desperate character. The balls being made
hard as possible were capable of inflicting severe injuries.
Many a poor fellow was carried from the field badly wounded,
but even if so inclined he dared not exhibit anger nor com-
plain. I well remember an occasion when a body of cavalry
had to pass along a road lined on either side with infantry.
The snow was melting and it was easy to make a ball with
celerity and to make it almost as hard as a grapeshot. The
infantry never missed an opportunity to guy the cavalry, and
knowing we were coming they had large piles of snowballs
already made. Conscious of the inevitable pelting we should
receive every fellow ignominiously ducked his head and
attempted to run the gauntlet at a gallop. The infantry fel-
lows guyed us unmercifully, yelled like demons and kept the
air literally full of hurtling balls. They having a cross-fire
on us it was useless to dodge, and of course " we caught it"
right and left. Some of our boys were knocked off their
horses, but they were not permitted to surrender. Those
infantry fellows for the time being had hoisted the black flag
and gave no quarter. It was a terrible ordeal, many of the
boys afterward saying they would rather go into any "sure
enough " battle than to again run that gauntlet,
The greatest wholesale slaughter I ever witnessed was
McL,aws' division of Longstreet's army corps killing rabbits.
The soldiers, two or three thousand in number, surrounded a
large field of sage grass, an area of probably one hundred
acres, and armed with iron ramrods at the tap of the drum
marched to a common center. Almost as soon as the march
began the rabbits, scared by the terrific and constant yelling
of the soldiers, could be seen jumping up all over the field,
and as the four marching lines neared the center it was both
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 187
a pitiful and a ludicrous sight to see the countless little ani-
mals, timid and frightened, vainly trying to escape. At the
general round-up the soldiers would knock them over with
their ramrods, not a rabbit escaping. The field had been full
of the little animals, and when killed they constituted a
mound of considerable magnitude. One would suppose there
would be an indescribable scramble and possibly a few fights
among the men for the possession of the animals. Not so.
They were veteran soldiers admirably disciplined, and they
preserved the same order and discipline on an occasion of this
kind as when performing the regular duties of a soldier. The
proper officer took charge of the rabbits and issued to each
company its pro rata just the same as if issuing ordinary
The most infernally-tormenting thing a soldier had to con-
tend against was the pestiferous, disgusting little graybacks
which were always with him in countless myriads, roaming
over his person, biting and tickling him, making him at
times frantically desperate. The annoying insect was espe-
cially active on a warm, sunshiny day. While a man was on
the move the grayback would lie comparatively low, but the
moment he became still the voracious blood-sucking little
vermin would energetically begin business. Whenever the
command would halt, if for only a short time, it was not
unusual for many of the men to take off their shirts and
occupy their time in " inspecting " for graybacks. Knowing
he could not annihilate the whole army of investment the
soldier expected to do nothing more than to crush the " pick-
ets and skirmish lines." All conceivable expedients were
resorted to for the extermination of the pests, or at least for
an amelioration of the soldiers' tormented condition. Boiling
his clothes, the using of mercurial ointment, red precipitate
and other devices were of no avail. When Mr. and Mrs.
Grayback were once introduced into a camp they were there
to stay. They multiplied with phenomenal rapidity, burrow-
ing in the seams and nap of clothing, in the hair, in the
188 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
blankets, saddles — everywhere. The longer the war contin-
ued the more decimated became the Confederate ranks, but
the grayback army was constantly augmenting in numbers.
A soldier receiving new clothing from the quartermaster
would carry them to a certain spot in a field, walk away from
them a distance of probably fifty yards, divest himself of his.
old clothes, " graybacks and all," and then, being nude as
nature made him, he would run to the pile of new clothing,
put them on, and — by the next morning be as full of gray-
backs as ever. The grayback was no respecter of persons,
attacking alike the dainty, fastidious patrician and the tat-
tered and torn plebeian, the general and the private soldier.
A Dixie Girl's Song.
My homespun dress is plain, I know,
My hat's palmetto, too ;
But then it shows what Southern girls
For Southern rights can do.
We send the bravest of our land
To battle with the foe,
And we will lend a helping hand —
We love the South, you know.
Hurrah ! hurrah f
For the Sunny South, so dear ;
Three cheers for the homespun dress
The Southern ladies wear.
Now Northern goods are out of date,
And since Old Abe's blockade
We Southern girls can be content
With goods that's Southern made.
We send our sweethearts to the war,
But, girls, never mind —
Your soldier-love will ne'er forget
The girl he left behind.
The Southern land's a glorious land
And has a glorious cause ;
Then cheer, three cheers for Southern rights
And for the Southern boys !
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 189
We scorn to wear a bit of silk,
A bit of Northern lace,
But make our homespun dresses up,
And wear them with a grace.
And now, young man, a word to you,
If you would win the fair,
Go to the field where honor calls
And win your lady there ;
Remember that our brightest smiles
Are for the true and brave.
And that our tears are all for those
Who fill the soldier's grave.
Keeping a Diary.
J. Harvey Dorman, of Captain Alexander's company, came
upon the dead body of one of Averill's men at Wytheville, and
upon examination of trie "effects" of the dead Federal he
found a journal in which the soldier had kept a daily record,
but he had been killed before he had an opportunity of mak-
ing an entry for that day. Dorman wishing to keep the
record unbroken made the entry: " May 10, 1864. I was
Morning Ablutions at a Mountain Cabin.
The wife of Colonel Giltner was a delicate young lady,
vivacious, witty and of a sunny temperament. Mrs. Bart
Jenkins was one of the gentlest, most amiable, refined and
kindest-hearted ladies I ever knew.
When the flag had been furled at Appomattox, and we
were returning to Kentucky through the mountains, Mrs.
Giltner and Mrs. Jenkins were in a carriage, escorted by
Henry and Neville Bullit, of Louisville, and myself. One
night we secured quarters for the ladies in a mountain cabin.
The next morning the ladies asked the simple but hospitable
hostess for a wash basin. The lady of the house opened
her eyes in surprise, not understanding what they wanted.
Finally, however, she was made to comprehend, and directed
them to a wooden trough down by the spring, several rods
from the house.
190 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
A Man in a " Fit " and a Fight.
Mrs. Stout, a Virginia lady, saw a great deal of the Fourth
Kentucky, and tells the following on Henry Razor and Jerry
Leggett: Razor had " drawn" a new suit of clothes, which,
as usual, were a "misfit." The trousers especially were
ridiculous — the waist being about four sizes too large, and
the legs only reaching a short distance below his knees.
While Mrs. Stout was busily baking biscuits for them, which
they were rapidly and voraciously devouring, Leggett slipped
one of the hot biscuits down the bulge in Razor's Falstaffian
trousers, and she says that right then and there occurred the
most vicious fight she ever saw.
Texan Boys' Song.
The race is not to them that's got
The longest legs to run ;
Nor the battle to that people
That shoots the biggest gun.
$700 to $3,000
Boots, per pair
100 to 200
75 to 100
300 to 400
Calico, per yard
8 to 10
Coffee, per pound
Sugar, per pound
The Tennessee Bushwhacker.
Bill Owens, a ferocious rebel bushwhacker, came to head-
quarters and told how he had killed John Morrison, the
noted Union bushwhacker, of Beech Creek, and how Mor-
rison's little boy stepped out from the cabin and said :
"Boys, old John's dead." Owens said he would call again
after he had killed bushwhacker Sizemore and some other
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 191
Who Will Care; for Mother Now?
Of the many war songs the following was one of the most
pathetic. I recall two stanzas :
" Why am I so weak and weary,
See how faint my heated breath ;
All around to me seems darkness,
Tell me, comrade, is this death?
Oh, how well I know your answer !
To my fate I meekly bow ;
If you'll only tell me truly,
Who will care for mother now ?
" Let this knapsack be my pillow,
And my mantle be the sky ;
Hasten, comrade, to the battle,
I will like a soldier die ;
Soon with angels I'll be marching,
With bright laurels on my brow.
I have for my country fallen.
Who will care for mother now ?
General Marshall's " Spirited " Address.
In the autumn of 1864 the brigade was visited by General
Humphrey Marshall, whom the boys had not seen since he
had gone to Richmond to represent the Kentuckians in Con-
gress. When he arrived in camp the boys gathered about
him and demanded a speech. He said he was happy to greet
them ; that he had kept himself informed as to their move-
ments, achievements, conduct and welfare, and eloquently
referred to the good record " his boys" had made, far from
their Kentucky homes, battling for a just cause. He then
relapsed into a strain of humor, saying that when absent he
was with them in spirit ; that really he had been due in camp
on the preceding day, but had met a few convivial spirits and
got too much in the spirit, or too much of the spirit in him-
self ; that he was so full that he would have been too full for
utterance had he then put in an appearance and been called
upon for an oration. It was nis duty to set a good example
and not let " his boys " see him so full of " spirits." He had,
however, often indulged them in the vice of getting "full,"
192 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
and he now asked their forgiveness for having ordered a num-
ber of barrels of whisky to be emptied and the soil irrigated
therewith at Ticktown, Ky. He thought " his boys " would
agree with him that they had been getting a little too full on
that occasion ; that he thought he was not so much to blame
for having become intemperate on the preceding day, as every
officer he met presented the flowing bowl, and custom
and politeness demanded that he should not slight their hos-
pitality. He forgot that there were six drinking against one,
or one against six — somehow things were mixed, and he
could scarcely yet straighten them out. His peroration was
grandly eloquent. In his glowing apostrophe to liberty he
said the war must be fought to a triumphant conclusion, even
though it became necessary to wade waist- deep in blood.
Barney Giltner, the witty aid-de-camp, here interrupted the
orator and said: " General, that's too deep forme. I only
contracted to go in knee-deep."
A Mountain Wood Nymph.
Major Henry T. Stanton, the laureate, inadvertently found
a mountain maid sitting on a log in a sequestered woodland.
Her chin rested upon her knees, held together by her clasped
hands, and her feet were bare.
" She had a rustic, woodland air,
And she was wildly clad."
The major halted at a respectful distance, intuitively feel-
ing that the forlorn looking maid was in distress, and had
purposely sought that secluded spot to be away from the
haunts of man. Sympathetically he remained unseen and
listened to the following lament, " chanted o'er and o'er,"
while the nymph's body swayed to and fro ;
" Beauty is skin deep,
Ugly is to the bone ;
Beauty fades away,
But ugly holds its own."
Our poet silently sneaked away to the camp, wiped his
weeping eyes, sat down at his desk and wrote an ode, dedi-
cated to the army mule.
KEXTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 193
The following was one of the mournful songs — sounds
from the battlefield :
The Officer's Funeral.
Hark ! to the shrill trumpet calling,
It pierceth the soft summer air,
Tears from each comrade are falling,
For the widow and orphan are there !
The bayonets earthward are turning,
And the drum's muffled breath rolls around ;
But he hears not the voice of their mourning,
Nor awakes to the bugle's sound ;
But he hears not the voice of their mourning,
Nor awakes to the bugle's sound.
Sleep, soldier, tho' many regret thee
Who stand by thy cold bier to-day ;
Soon, soon shall the kindest forget thee.
And thy name from the earth pass away.
The man thou didst love as a brother,
A friend in thy place will have gained;
Thy dog shall keep watch for another.
And thy steed by a stranger be reined ;
Thy dog shall keep watch for another,
And thy steed by a stranger be reined.
But tho' hearts that now mourn for thee sadly
Soon joyous as ever shall be ;
Tho' thy bright orphan boy may laugh gladly
As he sits on some comrade's kind knee,
There is one who shall still pay the duty
Of tears for the true and the brave,
As when first, in the bloom of her beauty,
She wept o'er the soldier's grave ;
As when first in the bloom of her beauty,
She wept o'er the soldier's grave.
A Bushwhacker Takes a Whack at the Poet Laureate.
Jolly Major Henry T. Stanton came into camp, and in a
poetical waj T told how, when upon the mountain side, he had
been bushwhacked by a bloodthirsty mountaineer with an
elongated squirrel rifle ; how he had withdrawn himself in
quintuple time from the vicinity of the "whacker's" seques-
tered eyre, and that he congratulated himself upon his
masterly retreat — not losing a man.
194 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
The Cold New Year.
On the morn of that New Year,
No bugle horn did we hear.
Ever memorable day, January i, 1864! Memorable, not
only on account of the excessive frigidity of the day, but by
reason of the peculiar circumstances which indelibly stamped
it upon the tablet of memory. No ; there was no sounding
of Tom Hayden's bugle. The old horn had a bad cold, like-
wise Tom. However, if there was no blow in the horn, old
Boreas was giving us a blast, the very memory of which
makes us shiver on a midsummer day.
As I said, the circumstances were peculiar, even for
soldiers inured to the hardest kind of hardships. We were
in Tennessee, northeast of Knoxville, in a country which the
armies of Iyongstreet and Burnside had left a barren waste,
and now, on this terribly cold morning of a day that has
passed into history as " the cold New Year," we are encamped
on the outpost ; no fire and no prospect of a mouthful of
food until we can reach our wagons, thirty miles away. On
the previous day the weather was quite warm and rainy.
The sudden change came in the night. We were lying on
the bare ground with only the sky for canopy. Our mission
at the post was ended, and at the break of day we began
preparations for the long, cold, dreary march. With difficulty
we untied our poor horses, which were shivering and whim-
pering for food. The halters were covered with ice and
snow, and frozen to the small " black jack " trees, which
served as hitching posts. Without any formation we started
on the long tramp of thirty miles. I say tramp because no
man could ride his horse that day without freezing to death.
We had seen no fire, had had no cup of coffee nor good
warm breakfast to fortify ourselves against the cold. The men
straggled at will, many of them leaving the column to wander
through the country, hoping to find warmth — they could not
hope for food — at the hearths of the simple but hospitable
Few in that column were old enough to wear beards, but
Major Parker had very black hair and beard. Toward the
middle of the day, while staggering along, my horse follow-
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 195
ing, I found myself beside the major, who spoke a cheerful
word. I never would have recognized him but for his voice.
The patriarch Abraham never wore whiter beard than the
frosted hirsute appendage of the major.
I shall not further attempt to describe our almost intoler-
able sufferings. Suffice to say that when, after nightfall, we
came in sight of the glowing camp fires, we felt just about as
happy as if entering the New Jerusalem;
Colonel Pryor and the; Home; Guards.
One night Colonel Pryor, recruiting in Kentucky, thought
he would venture into Carrollton to see his family. When
within a few miles of the town he ran into a company of
Home Guards, mustered at a crossroads. Appreciating the
situation the colonel promptly ordered them to advance, one
man at a time, which they abjectly and meekly did, the
colonel sending them, one by one, to the rear. Having thus
disposed of the valiant (?) Home Guardians, the solitary
horseman resumed his triumphal march to Carrollton.
A dark, cold night at the foot of Clinch Mountain. The
courier gang has applied to a man by the name of Sample for
food and been refused.
John Powell—" What's his name?"
' Dick Alexander — "Sample."
John Powell — "Well, I think he's a d — d poor sample."
John Fore — " I think he's a very good sample of his class."
All—" D— n Sample ! "
An old gentleman wearing a high-crowned hat enters the
Soldier — ' ' Say, mister, where did you get that hat ? Have
you got a rammer for it?"
196 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
John Skidmore and General Cosby.
On the march down the Shenandoah Valley, General Cosby,
riding an inferior horse, overtook John Skidmore, of Com-
pany A, Fourth Kentucky, who was mounted upon a superb
General — " Soldier, that's a fine horse. How'll you
Skidmore — " Couldn't trade 'hosses,' general, but I'll trade
you my haversack for your ' hoss.' "
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 197
The; Battle; of Saltville.
THE loss of the Virginia Saltworks would have been a dire
disaster to the Confederacy. The saline springs and
wells were numerous, and large sums of money had been
expended in their development and in the manufacture of
the most indispensable condiment used by man or beast.
A person who had never seen them could scarcely conceive
of the huge piles, long ranges of salt hills.
The Federals had long coveted these works, and our scouts
reported that a force of six or eight thousand cavalry with
from six to ten pieces of artillery was making a rapid march
from Kentucky, with the avowed determination to capture
and destroy them. They were commanded by Generals Bur-
bridge and Hobson and Colonel Charles Hanson. It was also
understood that there were two negro regiments in the Fed-
The Saltworks were probably sixty miles from the Virginia
and Kentucky line, and in order to delay the enemy and to
keep informed of his movements, Colonel Giltner, whose
brigade was between Saltville and the Federals, sent Colonel
Trimble with one hundred and fifty men to Richlands, forty
miles from Saltville. It not being known with certainty by
which route the Federals would approach the Saltworks/
various detachments of observation were sent on several
roads leading to the front and flanks. Learning that Bur-
bridge had sent a battalion to Jeffersonville toward our right
flank, Colonel Giltner ordered Captain Bart Jenkins to move
in that direction to watch them. Trimble slowly fell back
from Richlands, skirmishing the while with the enemy.
Our main force, not more than three hundred effective
men, took position on the slope of Clinch Mountain, while
the enemy in plain view were encamped in the broad fields
of the demesne of stanch old General Bowen, some two
miles from our position. This was on Saturday, October
198 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
We knew that there were no troops behind us at Saltville,
excepting a small body of militia and a few pieces of artil-
lery. Afterward, however, Major Henry T. Stanton wrote
that General " Cerro Gordo" Williams, commanding a divis-
ion of cavalry, had unexpectedly arrived at Castle Woods,
not far away. This was cheering news, and we now only
desired to hold the enemy in check until old Cerro Gordo
could reach Saltville.
About the middle of the forenoon the enemy moved out
of their encampment and headed directly for our position on
the mountain side. The long, blue columns as they
debouched from their camps made a magnificent panoramic
display. On they came in serpentine course, bugles sound-
ing and panoplied in all the pomp and circumstance of war.
A white horse battalion in front was especially noticeable.
The mountain road ran in a zigzag course, and when the
enemy had reached a turn in the road, about three hundred
yards below one occupied by the Fourth Kentucky and
Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles, our men fired down upon
the Federals, emptying a number of saddles, killing some
horses and causing the front regiments to dismount.
The superior numbers of the enemy, six thousand against
three hundred, enabled them easily to flank us out of our
position, but not until after a hot fight of probably a half
hour. While falling back to the crest of the mountain, we
partially blockaded the road by felling a few trees.
The Sixty-fourth Virginia and Tenth Kentucky Cavalry
^were on the summit of Flat Top Mountain to protect our
flank. The enemy did not come up to our new position
until an hour or two past noon, and we again fought them
until they adopted their previous tactics of dismounting and
flanking us. We then descended the mountain, falling back
to a veritable Gibraltar, Laurel Gap. This was a narrow
passway through a smaller range of mountains than the one
we had just abandoned. We could have made a Thermopylae
of it but for the fact that it could be easily flanked. Here
we were to make the last stand before retiring to Saltville.
Iyieutenant-Colonel Smith, in command of probably two
hundred and fifty reserves, old men and boys, was at the gap
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 199
when we got there. They were then sent to guard two less
important gaps, lower down toward the Saltworks. The
cliffs on either side of Laurel Gap were almost inaccessible,
they could not be scaled. The Fourth Kentucky and Tenth
Kentucky Mounted Rifles were posted on the cliff to the left,
and the Sixty-fourth Virginia on the right. Colonel Trimble
was sent up the valley behind the mountain, to check any
force that might cross above and attempt to come down upon
It was late in the afternoon when the enemy appeared in
heavy force, dismounted and attacked us. Scaling the
mountain on the right, they charged upon the Sixty-fourth
Virginia, easily driving it from its position. Our right being
turned, there was nothing left but to retreat to Saltville.
This we did slowly. In this fight Tom Roy, one of the best
soldiers in the Fourth Kentucky, was severely wounded.
There were, of course, others whose names I do not
The enemy was arrogant and jubilant. The small force
opposing him and the brief checks to his triumphant march
emboldened him to think Saltville would fall an easy prey
on the morrow. Burbridge, in his self-conceit and pomposity
did not seem even to suspect that he was being toled on to
an inferno of blazing muskets and roaring artillery which
would sound the death knell of hundreds of his doomed
command, and whose reverberations amid the hills and
valleys of the Saltworks would mingle with groans of his
wounded and dying and sing requiems for his dead.
At Bradford the road forked, there being two roads to the
Saltworks. Colonel Giltner took the Sixty-fourth Virginia
and Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles across Holston River,
and ordered Colonel Trimble with the Tenth Kentucky
Cavalry and Fourth Kentucky Cavalry down the main river
road. From scouts we learned that the entire Federal force
had passed through Laurel Gap by midnight.
Early the next morning, Sunday, October 2, 1864, the battle
of Saltville opened by the enemy making a spirited and con-
fident attack on our pickets and skirmish lines. Heavy
columns soon pressed our small force on both roads, and the
200 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Fourth Kentucky and Tenth Kentucky Cavalry crossed over
to the road occupied by Colonel Giltner, and in doing so they
came immediately under the enemy's fire, Giltner having
already fallen back. Colonel Trimble charged the enemy,
making them recoil. He then continued to fall back slowly,
until a large body of Federals charged the Fourth Kentucky.
That regiment then and there fought a whole brigade for
nearly a half hour. A part of the brigade occupied a high
hill between two roads, just above Governor Saunders' house.
General Robertson's small brigade, two hundred and fifty
men, the advance of General Williams' division, arrived and
took position on a high ridge to our right.
I was charmed with the appearance of General Robertson.
He was the youngest looking general I had seen in the army,
apparently not more than twenty-four years of age, and
wearing good clothes, en neglige, gallant and handsome.
After much fierce fighting and shifting of positions, the
enemy's frequent charges being repulsed with great loss to
them, the line of battle was established substantially as fol-
lows : General Williams' division was on the high ridge on
the right ; Giltner's brigade was on the bluffs along the river;
the Tenth Kentucky Cavalry on the bluff at the ford ; on its
left was the Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles ; then the
Sixty-fourth Virginia, and next the Fourth Kentucky, and
Preston's reserves on the extreme left. Smith's and Prather's
reserves were barricaded at Governor Saunders' house on a
hill somewhat in advance — an exposed and dangerous posi-
tion. They had been urged to abandon it but refused.
I was standing in the main road at the base of the left end
of Chestnut Ridge, when General Cerro Gordo Williams
rode up at the head of his command, early in the morning.
He looked much the same as when I had seen him last in
Tennessee ; massive, tall and commanding, the picture of
robust health. With the voice of a stentor he ordered his
men up the ridge. Standing there in the middle of the road,
he stormed and swore while hurrying the men, and continued
to storm until the last man was in position. He was in
prodigious haste to get into the battle, and after he got into
it he stormed and " cussed " all day, and for aught I know
he kept up the " storm " after the battle had ceased.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 201
The Battle op Sai/Tvii^e; (Continued) — Death of Colonel
Trimble — Defeat of the Federals.
SAL/TVILI/B was a natural fortress, a number of hills and
ridges in concentric circles surrounding it.
The enemy, apparently four thousand strong, mounted and
dismounted, advanced upon our established lines and were
received by a blazing line of fire from right to left. The
roar and reverberations of our artillery among the gorges
and fastnesses of the mountains were awe-inspiring and grand
beyond description. The roar of one cannon sounded like
a full battery of columbiads. The prolonged echoes were
likely to inspire the delusion that a hundred hills were
crowned with artillery of every caliber — howitzers, Napoleon
twelve-pounders, parrotts, siege-guns, etc.
Between the hours of n and 12 A. m. the enemy made a
grand demonstration, displaying, more foolhardiness than
generalship. Formed in three lines they charged the
advanced reserves at Saunders', " old men and young boys,"
as Burbridge had contemptuously called them. Between
those " old men and boys," not more than four hundred
strong, and about two thousand Federals a surprisingly ter-
rific conflict ensued. The " old men and little boys," in an
exposed and unsupported position, stubbornly contested
every inch of ground, much of the fighting being hand to
hand. Their bravery surprised our veterans and the Fed-
erals alike. Our soldiers, accustomed to guy them, had
expected them to retire precipitately at the first fire. They
held their position until the enemy in overwhelming force
entered the yard and surrounded the house. Their loss was
severe ; the more so as they had to fall back under a galling
fire down a steep hill and up Chestnut Ridge. Thirty or
more of them were killed, the usual proportion were wounded
and as many more captured. Afterward, when passing over
this part of the battlefield, my emotions were sad and sor-
•202 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN~ DfXf£.
rowful when I beheld gray-haired men and fair-haired boys
hying side by side pale in death, slain at the threshold of their
homes, on their native Virginia soil ; gallant sons of the Old
Dominion, the home of Washington and the mother of pres-
idents. I take off my hat and bow in reverence to the memory
of the " old men and little boys " of the Thirteenth Battalion
The enemy scarcely halting at the Saunders house swept
down the hill and up Chestnut Ridge, where they were
warmly received by the small brigades of Robertson and
It was here that the negro regiments, conspicuously
exposed, fell in heaps before the rifles of the enraged Ten-
nesseeans. Three columns charged the center held by Colonel
Trimble at the ford. One column came down the big hill,
one down the river and another across the wide bottom. The
Federals when charging our lines, being in plain view, were
fair targets for our unerring riflemen, and consequently
whenever they made a charge their losses were frightfully
Having crossed at the ford, the enemy scaled the cliff and
attacked Trimble, who with his small battalion fought them
in the open field at close range — not more than fifty yards.
The Tenth Mounted Rifles and Sixty-fourth Virginia were
sent to his support. Colonel Giltner galloped to the reserves
who were then in the trenches at the church, and in obedience
to his request they charged down the road and up by the
graveyard, where Trimble was engaged, and delivered a with-
ering fire, immediately, however, falling back.
Co^oneI/ Trimble KraED.
With his accustomed intrepidity the young colonel of the
Tenth Kentucky Cavalry was desperately holding his posi-
tion, when he was shot through the head, the ball striking
just beneath the star he wore on his hat. Thus fell one of
the bravest of the brave, noted for his quiet, modest manner
and for coolness and intrepidity in battle, an accomplished
scholar, a Kentuckian by birth and a Texan by adoption.
He had been a soldier from the beginning of the war, enter-
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 203
ing the army as a private and serving under General John
B. Floyd, in his Northwest Virginia campaign, afterward a
lieutenant in the Fifth Kentucky, thence rising to the
colonelcy of the Tenth Kentucky Cavalry.
" He died a gallant knight,
With sword in hand, for Southern right."
The enemy's advance was as signally repulsed in the center
as it had been on the right. On the left they fared even
worse. For more than an hour an interminable column of
horsemen and footmen had been disappearing on the side of
the mountain and eventually appearing in front of the Fourth
Kentucky and Preston's reserves. This Federal column was
commanded by Colonel Charles Hanson, a gallant officer.
The Fourth Kentucky boj-s bore the brunt of the hot engage-
ment that then ensued and drove the enemy back with heavy
loss, there being only slight casualties in their own ranks.
Captain Jim Wilfts was knocked down by a ball, but retained
his place at the head of his company With their long-range
Enfield rifles the Fourth Kentucky made many a Federal bite
the dust, and they guyed and tantalized the wavering, dispir-
ited boys in blue unmercifully They would fire a volley and
then 3^ell, " Come right up and draw your salt ! " Silas Sims,
a dead-shot, would draw a bead on a blue-coat, blaze away
and then hail the '' Yank" with the interrogatory, "How's
that; am I shooting too high or too low?" Afterward, while
passing over the field, Sims came upon the bodj r of a dead
officer whose head had been partially torn away by a cannon
ball. The uns5 r mpathetic Confederate, with grim humor,
took a handful of salt from his haversack and threw it into
the cavity in the dead officer's head, saying, " There, you
came for salt, now take some."
204 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Battle of Saltville — (Continued) — Captain Jenkins in The
Federal Rear — Arrival of Generals Breckinridge and
Echols — Duke's, Cosby's and Vaughn's Brigades— Killing
ACTIVE firing ceased at 5 p. m. Really the enemy had
been hopelessly defeated early in the afternoon, but
dared not retreat, as we commanded the road through Hay-
ters Gap, which was the hypothenuse of a right-angled
triangle, the road from Saltville to Laurel Gap being the per-
pendicular, and the road thence to Kentucky the base. Given
an even start with the enemy we could easily cut them off by
taking the Hayters Gap Road, as they would be compelled
to retreat by way of the perpendicular and base of the right-
angled triangle. They contented themselves as best they
could by simply holding their position, a mile from the
Saltworks, until night.
Our artillery had been well served — solid shot and shriek-
ing bombs doing horrible execution in the dense assaulting
columns. One rifled cannon near the church was especially
well trained, fired rapidly, and was very effective against the
column that attacked Trimble at the ford. One shot killed a
major and a captain. At another time a few well-directed
shots stampeded a Federal line advancing around the end of
It will be remembered that Captains Bart Jenkins and T
M. Barrett had been sent to Jeffersonville to guard our flank
before the enemy had reached the plantation of General
Bowen. Captain Barrett succeeded in returning to the com-
mand before the enemy passed the Jeffersonville Road, but
Captain Jenkins was cut off. As the sequel proved it
would have been to our advantage had Captain Barrett
been forced to remain with Jenkins. There would then have
been an annoying force in the enemy's rear. The genius,
celerity and daring of Jenkins and the cool imperturbability
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 205
and tenacity of Barrett would have made an admirable
About the middle of the afternoon Jenkins attacked the
Federal rear, surprising Confederates and Federals and creat-
ing a diversion in our favor, Burbridge withdrawing four or
five hundred men from our front to face the unknown force
in his rear.
Jenkins' bold attack and masterly evolutions greatly mysti-
fied and demoralized Burbridge's already defeated and
A considerable part of our force was not engaged at all.
General Williams' own brigade, commanded by Colonel
Breckinridge, had only one battalion in the fight, and three
or four hundred of the reserves were in action only a brief
time. Giltner's brigade fired some seventy-five or one hun-
dred rounds of ammunition to the man.
Just after dark Captain Guerrant and mj^self were riding
over the field when we met General Robertson, who said
he thought his men had killed nearly all the negroes.
Among the casualties that occurred in Giltner's brigade,
I do not pretend to remember all, were the following: Major
Cox, of Trimble's battalion, was shot from his horse, des-
perately wounded; Captain John Honaker, of the same
troop, was wounded; Lieutenant James Crutchfield, of the
Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles', was killed. Lieutenant
Crit Ireland, acting aid-de-camp on Giltner's staff, had his
horse shot from under him.
Generals Breckinridge and Echols arrived after nightfall ;
also the small brigades of Generals Duke, Cosby and
The Federals built numerous fires, which excited a sus-
picion, afterward verified, that they would be gone before the
dawn of Monday.
The Fourth Kentucky relieved Trimble's battalion guard-
ing the ford. With our front guarded by a strong skirmish
line, the clear, blue Holston River running between us and
the enemy, the " sentinel stars having set their watch in the
sky," the Confederates slept peacefully and refreshingly until
the earlv dawn of Monday
206 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Our command had always entertained a supreme contempt
for Burbridge's generalship, but on this occasion he was
entitled to credit for knowing when to retreat. Had the
Federals remained in their position until the next morning
they never would have gotten back to Kentucky except as
exchanged prisoners of war. Reinforced in the night by
Duke's, Cosby's and Vaughn's troops, we could easily have
intercepted the retreating enemy on the narrow mountain
roads and have hemmed them within the fastnesses of the
I awoke at the first faint light of the dawn and saw that, as
usual, a dense fog enveloped mountain and valley. All was
quiet and impenetrably dark in front. Presently I heard a shot,
then another and another until the firing swelled to the volume
of that of a skirmish line. It seemed to indicate that the enemy
were still in our front. Some adventurous scouts, however,
soon came in and reported the enemy non est inventus. But
what did that firing mean? I mounted my horse, and guided
by an occasional pistol or rifle shot made my way through
the fog until I had arrived at a point some distance to the
front and right of the position from which I had started. I
soon became aware of the fact that I was in the front of Rob-
ertson's and Dibbrell's brigades, and the desultory firing was
at once explained — the Tennesseeans were killing negroes.
Dead Federals, whites and negroes, were lying all about me.
Of course many of the negroes had been killed in battle, but
many of them had been killed after the battle, that morning.
Hearing more firing in front, I cautiously rode forward and
came upon a squad of Tennesseeans, mad and excited to the
highest degree. They were shooting every wounded negro
they could find. Hearing firing on other parts of the field,
I knew that the same awful work was going on all about me.
It was horrible, most horrible. Robertson's and Dibbrell's
brigades had lost many good men and officers, probably shot
by these same negroes, and they were so exasperated that
they could not be deterred from their murderous work.
Very many of the negroes standing about in groups were
only slightly wounded, but they soon went down before the
unerring pistols and rifles of the enraged Tennesseeans.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 207
Had Burbridge done his duty he could have carried those
wounded Africans off with his retreating column. Many of
them were not disabled to the extent that they could not
travel. They had not been awakened when the Federals
"folded their tents and silently stole away." The poor,
unfortunate negroes had overslept themselves and found that
they had been deserted by their comrades and left to be mas-
sacred — a fate that Burbridge must have known would befall
them should they fall into Confederate hands. I pitied them
from the bottom of my heart and would have interposed in
their behalf had I not known that any effort to save them
would be futile. Some of them were so slightly wounded
that they could even run, but when they ran from the muzzle
of one pistol it was only to be confronted by another. Enter-
ing a little log cabin, I paused at the threshold when I saw
seven or eight slightly wounded negroes standing with their
backs against the walls. I had scarcely been there a minute
when a pistol-shot from the door caused me to turn and
observe a boy, not more than sixteen years old, with a pistol
in each hand. I stepped back, telling him to hold On until I
could get out of the way. In less time than I can write it,
the boy had shot every negro in the room. Every time he
pulled a trigger a negro fell dead. Generally the negroes
met their fate sullenly. It was bang, bang, bang, all over
the field — negroes dropping everywhere. About this time
General Breckinridge, General Duke and other officers
appeared on the scene. General Breckinridge, with blazing
eyes and thunderous tones, ordered that the massacre should
be stopped. He rode away and — the shooting went on. The
men could not be restrained. I saw a youth approach a
bright-looking mulatto boy standing quietly in front of a log
cabin, who seemed to think he was in no danger. The young
soldier leveled his pistol, and then the little mulatto jumped
behind a sapling not larger than a man's arm, and cried out
that General Duke had ordered him to remain there until he
should return. It was of no use. In another moment the
little mulatto was a corpse. It was said, I know not how
truly, that General Duke had recognized the young negro as
one who had belonged to the family of Morgan, or Duke, at
208 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
The Battle of SaltvillE (Continued) — The Retreat and Pur-
suit — General Bash, W. Duke — Colonel Charles Hanson-
Federal Depredations — Escape of the Federals.
EVIDENTLY the enemy had retreated precipitately and
much demoralized, as they had abandoned guns,
ammunition, hats, coats, horses and other miscellaneous
camp paraphernalia. The hills and fields were strewn with
their dead and the houses were filled with their wounded.
Their ostentatious cry, " Delenda est Carthago" had been
changed to that of " Sauve qui peut"
The ring of the rifle continued to sound the death-knell of
the poor negroes. They were all killed — a multitude of them.
The sable soldier was not accorded the privilege of surrender-
ing himself a prisoner of war. I did not see any of the
Kentuckians shoot a negro. A few of them, however, may
have done so. Not having met the negroes in battle they
had not the same provocation as the Tennesseeans.
General Breckinridge having ordered a scout from Giltner's
brigade to find the missing Federals the dashing Captain
Dick Gathright was sent on their trail in hot pursuit.
General Williams, with Duke's, Cosby's, Vaughn's, Robert-
son's and Dibbrell's small brigades, was ordered to take the
road through Hayters Gap, and, if possible, intercept the
enemy in Richlands. There was an unaccountable delay. I
observed that General Basil Duke, whose brigade formed the
advance of Williams' division, was promptly in the saddle
and at the head of his column, restlessly impatient, awaiting
the pleasure of Breckinridge or of Williams for him to move
forward. I have often thought of the brilliant young gen-
eral's appearance on that morning. He was the impersonation
of the ideal cavalier, a veritable Prince Rupert or Henry of
Navarre. His agile, symmetrical form was in constant,
nervous motion. Restlessly turning in his saddle, his dark
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 209
eyes flashing, he impatiently awaited the order to advance.
His was an attractive, martial figure. It must have been
about 8 o'clock when the expected order came. I4ke a flash
General Duke wheeled in his saddle, shouted " Forward! "
and was off like a shot, the remainder of Williams' division
trailing along behind him.
Giltner's brigade was ordered to follow the enemy, but not
to force them to accelerate their march, as it was desired to
give Williams time to get ahead of them. The enem}- having
many hours the start it was doubtful whether Old Cerro Gordo
could intercept them.
About a mile up the river we found Colonel Charles Han-
son lying in a little log hut desperately wounded. In
companj" with Colonel Giltner, Doctor Scott and Colonel Bob
Stoner I went in to see him. He was lying on a rude bed
and swearing horribly. Several canteens of brandy hung at
the head of the bed, and it was evident he had been drinking
copiously of their contents. His surgeon, Doctor Hunt, an
old acquaintance, whom we had captured at Mt. Sterling, was
attending him. The colonel was familiarly well acquainted
with Colonel Bob Stoner, calling him " Bob," and to him he
addressed most of his conversation. He expressed his opinion
of Burbridge in language more forceful than polite, and said
that Burbridge had kept well to the rear, ' ' too d — d cowardly
to go where he had sent his men." A minie ball having
passed through his body the surgeons declared the wound
was mortal, but although he thought himself in the immedi-
ate presence of death he made no effort to make his ' ' peace,
calling and election sure," but continued to "cuss a blue
Colonel Hanson was a tall, well proportioned, exceedingly
handsome man, quite drunk and seemingly very wicked. We
did not have time to remain with him long, and when we
left him he was still " cussin' " and drinking brandy. Having
no other thought than that he would surely die we were sur-
prised to learn later that he had been removed to Emory and
Henry Hospital, and that he would recover. The noted
Champ Ferguson, who always carried a black flag, pushed
his way to Hanson's ward in the hospital, and would have
210 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
killed him but for the interposition of the Confederate
Continuing the pursuit evidence of the demoralization of
the Federals accumulated all along the route. Captain Gath-
right had overtaken and stampeded what remained of the
negro regiments at Laurel Gap, the Federal commander again
seeming determined to sacrifice the negroes in order to protect
his white soldiers. He gave the negroes the post of honor —
the most dangerous positions.
At L,aurel Gap we found an abandoned cannon, and further
along another. The Federals pillaged every house on the
route, the negroes especially making themselves very obnox-
ious, insulting women, breaking into trunks, presses,
About 4 p. m., when crossing Clinch Mountain, we saw the
rear of the Federal column passing General Bowen's. They
took all of the old general's negroes, horses, cattle, etc.
Burbridge had also made a captive of Governor Saunders,
gray-haired and decrepit, sixty years old, and exhibited his
petty meanness and cruelty by making the old gentleman
walk. The Federals were fine foragers. They killed sixty
sheep for one man, and all the geese, turkeys, ducks, chick-
ens and hogs they could find. They robbed the gardens and
even levied on all the portable cooking utensils usually found
in kitchens. They left many a poor, broken-down horse, and
at one point the Sixty-fourth Virginia picked up eleven
Federals, lost in the woods. We met a number of negroes,
men, women and children, who had gone off with the enemy,
coming back. At dusk Colonel Diamond, commanding the
Tenth Kentucky Cavalry, attacked the enemy's rear while
crossing Clinch River. Moving slowly, according to orders,
we felt fairly confident of "bagging " the entire Federal force,
but toward noon of the next day we found that the " best
laid schemes of mice and men gang aft aglee " — General Will-
iams had failed to "head off" the enemy. Our mortification
and disappointment were great. It was useless to follow
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 211
In the Shenandoah Valley— General Cosby — Natural Bridge
— Lexington — Washington College — Virginia Military
Institute — Stonewall Jackson's Grave — General Early —
General Lomax— Captain McAfee— Rosser's Men.
" Where Shenandoah brawls along —
And burly Blue Ridge echoes strong
To swell the soldiers' rousing song
Of Stonewall Jackson's way. "
ON or about the 20th of October, 1864, General John C.
Breckinridge ordered General George B. Cosby, with
detachments of Giltner's and Hodge's brigades, to proceed
down the Shenandoah Valley and report to General Jubal A.
Early. Cosby's command consisted of parts of the Fourth
Kentucky Cavalry, Captain Bart Jenkins' company, Tenth
Kentucky Cavalry, Sixty-fourth Virginia, Tenth Kentucky
Mounted Rifles, First Kentucky Mounted Rifles, Second
Kentucky Mounted Rifles and the Sixth Confederate Battal-
ion — about five hundred men. Our disabled men and horses
were left in camp near Wytheville, Va.
General George B. Cosby was a native of Louisville, Ky.,
and had spent the greater part of his life at West Point and
in the regular army. While in the United States army he
was lieutenant in the Second Dragoons, commanded by
Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston. He had served on the staff
of Lieutenant-General S. B. Buckner. He was about thirty-
five years old, five and a half feet in height, and weighed not
more than one hundred and fifteen pounds. His hair and
eyes were black, and his complexion dark. He was a
polished man and somewhat of a martinet. He had some
noticeable peculiarities, one of which was that he was invari-
ably thrown into a rage when he saw an officer or soldier
building a fire against a standing tree. Although the camp
might be in the midst of a dense forest, he held that there
was no excuse for wanton and unnecessary destruction of
212 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
timber. He was interesting in conversation and genial in
The general's staff was made up as follows : Major O. S.
Tenny, Q. M. ; Major Clark, Q. M. ; Major Thompson,
C. S. ; Major Shook, C. S. ; Captain Sam Shipp, A. I. G. ;
Captain K. O. Guerrant, A. A. G. ; Captain J. J. McAfee, A.
A. G. ; Captain Johnson, Ordinance Officer ; Lieutenant
Carrington, Ordinance Officer ; Lieutenant Crit Ireland, A. I.
G. ; Captain Barney Giltner and Charles D. Carter, Aids-de-
I hailed with delight the prospect of a trip down the valley.
I had been anxious to see the beautiful valley, celebrated in
song and story, and which had recently been made famous
by the brilliant exploits of Stonewall Jackson. The march
was through a country of romantic appearance. The great
turnpike road which runs through the entire length of the
valley was the best I have ever seen. Much of the country
is very beautiful, bearing a striking resemblance to the blue-
grass region of Kentucky. When we were crossing the
Alleghanies we were scarcely aware of the fact, the grade
being so gradual. Of the objects of interest the one of
greatest curiosity was the wonderful Natural Bridge. The
main road runs right over it. General Cosby permitted the
command to halt for an hour or two, that the boys might
inspect the wonderful structure of nature. The bridge is an
immense arch of limestone, two hundred and fifteen feet
above Cedar Creek and averages eighty feet in width and
fifty-five in thickness. The arch forms a perfect bridge, which,
when viewed from the margin of the stream below, presents
an imposing appearance. This great valley is fenced on one
side by the Blue Ridge and on the other by the Alleghanies,
the expansive country being alternately level and undulating,
dotted with elegant mansions, reminding one of baronial
halls. The broad, fertile fields and extensive bluegrass
savannas make up a picture of beauty and grandeur which
my inartisticpen is incapable of describing. Staunton, Salem,
Harrisonburg, Lexington, Strasburg, Winchester and other
towns, notwithstanding the desolation wrought by war,
retained much of their pristine, substantial and aristocratic
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 213
appearance. Lexington, situated on tableland, about equi-
distant between the Alleghany Mountains and the Blue
Ridge, was a town of probably one thousand inhabitants.
The streets were crooked, but the houses were generally
large and built somewhat after the style of those in cities,
seemingly commencing at the second story — the kitchen,
laundry, etc., being in the basement. Few men were at home
— all gone into the war. The women were refined and cult-
ured ; but we did not see many of them. They were either
busily engaged with their domestic duties or weeping.
Washington College, now known as Washington and L,ee
University, consisted of several attractive and commodious
brick buildings west or northwest of town.
The Virginia Military Institute, then almost in ruins, stood
near North River. Even in ruins the buildings were impos-
ing, though the silent walls, vacant windows and open doors
gave them a mournful appearance. Within those walls and
on the surrounding campus the immortal military genius,
Stonewall Jackson, had taught the cadets and trained them
in artillery evolutions. The Federal general, Hunter, had
attempted to destroy the buildings at about the time the right
wing of his invading cavalry, under Averill, had been
stampeded by General John H. Morgan, at Wytheville.
In the center of the cemetery I sorrowfully and reveren-
tially stood beside the grave of Jackson. There was then no
stone, no monument — nothing but a small flagstaff and Con-
federate flag to mark the sepulcher of the renowned Napo-
leonic warrior who " had gone across the river to rest under
the shade of the trees." It was a simple, sodded mound,
with a bouquet of flowers, a daily offering laid upon it by
loving hands. The boards at the head and foot of the grave
had been mutilated by the Federals, who carried away chips
and splinters as souvenirs. In no spirit of vandalism, how-
ever, did they do this. The Union soldiers entertained the
highest respect for the great Christian general, and they had
no thought of desecrating his grave.
Sheridan, the famous barn-burner, had left his signet almost
everywhere in the valley. Somber ruins marked the places
where the proud Virginia manor houses, granaries and mam-
214 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
moth barns had stood. In many localities it was a desert
land. The brave sons of refined and cultured old Virginia
families were daily being shot down while defending their
ancestral halls and their loved native land. Their weeping
mothers, wives and sisters were driven from their homes by
the flaming torch, an instrument of warfare disgraceful to
even the untutored barbarian — the Goths and Vandals. The
land of Washington, of Jefferson, of Madison, of Monroe, of
Marshall, of Patrick Henry, of the Lees, the Jacksons, the
Stuarts, the Ashbys and the Randolphs was made waste by
fire and sword in the hands of men professing love for a
country of which Washington, the Virginian, was the illus-
trious father — the first in war, the first in peace and the first
in the hearts of his countrymen.
I turn from the somber, sickening picture, doffing my hat
and reverentially bowing to the memory of the Virginians.
L,et the curtain fall, while the orchestra renders music doloroso.
At New Market General Cosby reported to General Early
and was assigned to the cavalry division of Major-General
Lomax, a young officer six feet two inches in height, with
black eyes and hair, slow in speech, plain and unpretentious
in manner. General Davidson, one of his brigade command-
ers, was not tall, but he was very broad. Captain Guerrant
said the appearance of the two generals suggested longitude
General Early, commanding Jackson's corps, was appar-
ently about fifty years of age, probably six feet in height,
well proportioned, but somewhat stoop-shouldered. He wore
a great gray coat and an ancient-looking white slouch hat,
decorated with a black plume. He "cussed and swore
awfully," and drank liberally, as was the wont of the tradi-
tional " fine old Virginia gentlemen." He always carried a
canteen, which was generally supposed to contain brandy or
whisky. However, " Old Jubal " was very popular, notwith-
standing his wicked ways.
When we arrived in the valley the battle of Cedar Creek
had just been fought, and the first reading matter I saw was
General Early's address to his troops, in which he recited
their enviable record as soldiers and praised their valor which
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 215
had won the battle and sent the Federal army flying down
the valley, broken and demoralized. He then, in scathing
language, denounced them for having lost the fruits of their
great victory by breaking ranks and devoting themselves to
plundering the enemy's camps. It was an able, lengthy,
interesting paper, and in many respects a remarkable com-
position, abounding in praise, pathos, pleading and denun-
ciation. One who has seen General Early can well imagine
his wrath, and how he " cussed and swore" on that fateful
day, when he had seen his signal victory turned into defeat
by his gallant soldiers, intoxicated with victory, indulging
themselves in a wild revel in the enemy's camps. The gen-
eral pointed out to them how easily they could have followed
up their victory had they not stopped to plunder, convert-
ing themselves into a demoralized mob, an easy prey to
Sheridan when he turned and attacked them.
Had Early's army retained its organization and continued
its march against the fleeing Federals, "Sheridan's Ride,"
so-called, would never have been written. The excuse for
Early's men is that they were ragged and hungry. The rich
stores of food and clothing belonging to Sheridan's army
were too tempting ; in fact were irresistibly attractive ; they
halted in the midst of victory, and acting upon the principle
that "to the victor belongs the spoils" they abandoned
themselves to the pleasures of the hour. The soldiers felt
their disgrace keenly, and did not resent the old general's
terrible denunciations. They admitted that the general's
scathing, condemnatory sentences were justly deserved. But
among all his denunciations there was no charge of coward-
ice. The veterans whom he commanded, among whom was
the old " Stonewall brigade," could never be charged with
New Market was a small, war-worn, battle-scarred town,
having more the appearance of barracks for soldiers than a
habitation for citizens. The town was full of soldiers, guns,
wagons — everything that constituted the panoply of war.
There I first saw General John B. Gordon, the fighting
Georgian, and a number of other notables whose names I
shall not stop to write.
216 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
Lomax's division was composed of the brigades of David-
son, W L. Jackson, Imboden, McCausland and Cosby.
General Cosby issued the following address to his brigade :
Headquarters Cavalry Command,
Luray Valley, Va., October 31, 1864.
The brigadier-general commanding takes pleasure in compliment-
ing the command for good conduct on the march which has now
terminated. But few disgraceful exceptions marred its discipline.
Soldiers, you bring to the Valley of Virginia an untarnished repu-
tation. Let your record here be worthy of the past and a source of
pride in the future.
Let no straggling, want of discipline or drunkenness disgrace your
usefulness. Your path of duty is plain. Let no man depart from it.
George.B. Cosby, Brigadier-General.
Edward O. Guerrant, A. A. G.
Captain McAfee soon became disgusted with the scant
rations and tragically exclaimed : " My stomach feels heated
and unsatisfied-like." When he got to Pennsylvania he
intended to eat light bread, apple butter, cow butter and
poultry ad infinitum, and burn mills, barns and granaries ad
libitum, a la Sheridan. We trembled to think of the dire fate
of the poor Pennsylvanians, when hungry " Ginger," with
epicurean stomach, should swoop down upon them. But there
continued to be a perennial vacuum in "Mack's" stomach.
He never " got there."
While on our way from New Market over into Luray Val-
ley we met General Rosser's famous cavalry. They were
well dressed, handsome, gallant-looking fellows and very
merry, the result of a recent successful raid upon a ' ' still
house," found in a sequestered spot in the Blue Ridge. Our
boys saluted them and cried out, " Too gay, fellows, too gay ! "
We also passed through Kershaw's division of infantry,
McLaw's old division, whom we had seen before with Long-
street in Tennessee.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 217
In the Shenandoah Valley (Continued) — Luray Valley —
General Imboden — Lieutenant Crit Ireland — " Moonshine
Stills " — Columbia Bridge — Front Royal — Desolation and
WE learned that Sheridan was at Strasburg, " twenty
miles away" We continued to meet occasionally
a Rosser cavalryman who had tarried behind his comrades
at the mountain "still house." The little distilleries seemed
to be about the only inflammable objects that Sheridan had
neglected to burn. Possibly he thought "fire water" was
hot enough and quite as demoralizing and destructive as his
Our own boys were not long in finding out that they were
in a land of apple-jack, nor was it long until many of our
"sophisticated old timers" became as jolly as Rosser' s merry
' ' We journeyed on
With shout and song
And went into camp twelve or fifteen miles from New Mar-
ket, near Columbia Bridge, which was burned by Stonewall
Jackson just before his triple victory over Shields, Banks
and Fremont at Cross Keys, Port Republic, etc. These
valley soldiers and people almost deified Jackson, saying he
seemed to be omnipresent and omniscient — an inspired and
invincible Mars of war.
Although the distillers made no application for them Gen-
eral Cosby supplied the "moonshine resorts" with double
guards — a matter of precaution and of courtesy. ( ? ) The
general knew the "failing " of his Kentuckians and remem-
bered Rosser's I^aurel brigade, composed of good-looking,
gayly-dressed boys, on good horses, but carrying ' ' a little too
much of the over-be-joyful."
218 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
General Imboden visited our headquarters while we were at
Columbia Bridge, and continued his visits on future occa-
sions, being always a most welcome guest. Tall and stately,
courteous in manner, elegant and scholarly in conversation,
he was the ideal, fine old Virginia gentleman. When he
visited Cosby's quarters we were usually treated to a medley
of the sublime and ridiculous. While General Imboden
would be charming us with discourses on art and poetry, the
classics and science, he would be interrupted by gallant
Lieutenant Crit Ireland, who wanted to tell some ridiculous
anecdote or laughable, impossible story. Ireland was a con-
noisseur in equine flesh, unexcelled in horsemanship, but
literature was not his forte. His fortissimo laughter was in
marked contrast to Imboden's dulcet tones. Again while the
learned general's rythmic, enchanting language fascinated the
audience around the bivouac fire Captain McAfee, with his
hands upon his "unsatisfied-like stomach," would spoil the
enchantment by bewailing the fact that there was not even
one poor rooster left to welcome the rosy dawn along the
banks of the classic Shenandoah.
General Imboden had been intimately associated with
Stonewall Jackson, whom he regarded as the greatest military
genius of the war. He said that Jackson undoubtedly won
the first battle at Manassas ; that he always favored aggress-
ive tactics and planned to attack both front and rear.
Tom Hayden's " shrill trumpet calling" summoned us to
horse, as the morning lances routed the mists of the Shenan-
doah, and when the sun peeped over the Blue Ridge we
resumed our march down Luray Valley, our objective point
being Front Royal, the site of another of the immortal Jack-
son's triumphs over an often beaten foe. It was a small,
city-like town, in a level bottom, probably a mile above the
junction of the two branches of the Shenandoah River. The
ladies of the place were noted for refinement and Southern
patriotism. The surrounding country was desolation. We
were in the region where Jackson had achieved undying
fame. Here huge armies had been again and again hurled
against each other, and the country was marked with ruins
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 219
and graves. Graves everywhere; in the cemetery, in the
woodland, by the roadside, in the fields, in the church-yard,
in the garden. The very atmosphere seemed charged with
the breath of the grim reaper ; the country was a Golgotha.
" The dead men lie bathed in the weltering blood,
And the living are blent in the slippery flood ;
And the feet, as they reeling and sliding go,
Stumble still on the corpse that sleeps below."
220 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
In The Shenandoah Valley (Continued)— General Early Makes
a Reconnoissance in Force — The Infantry Exchanges
Pleasantries with the Cavalry — Lost on a Bleak Plateau
— A Fragrant Breath and Two Canteens — A Weird Scene.
" See you the foeman's banner waving?"
" We see the foeman's banner waving."
",Hark to the music — the trumpet and fife,
How they ring through the ranks which they rouse to the strife ! "
FROM Front Royal we moved on down the valley, looking
for Sheridan, whom we found about five miles south of
Winchester. On the night of November 1 1, 1864, our bivouac
fires illumined a line of battle, and three miles distant was
a long line of glowing fires, indicating that ' ' Cavalry Sher-
idan ' ' was ready and willing to fight us on the morrow.
Early's army had marched down the valley with "glad and
gallant tread," seemingly eager to recover the laurels it had
won and lost at Cedar Creek, October 19th.
The bands played inspiring melodies, and the veterans of
many battlefields sang, jested and laughed, apparently with-
out a thought of the probable horrors of a great battle on
the morrow. Their hearts were filled with " banquet song and
dance and wine," oblivious of the morrow's tear, the groan,
the knell, the pall, the bier. Here and there, however, was
a group of Kentucky cavalrymen speculating upon ' ' coming
events," and grimly discussing the probability of measuring
lances with the " gallant yellow-haired Custer," who was
known to be with the Federal cavalry in front.
When Tom Hayden's bugle sounded the reveille on the
morning of November 12th, our division (IyOmax's) was on
the extreme right of the army. An occasional volley was
heard toward the front, and as usual "camp rumors" were
numerous. Some said that Sheridan had fallen back beyond
Winchester, and that Early's infantry skirmishers were
already advancing; others said that Sheridan was moving
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 221
upon our lines, all of which proved to be correct. Both
armies were advancing their skirmishers and maneuvering
for position, preliminary to a general engagement.
General L,omax soon received an order to double-quick to
the left flank to assist Rosser, who was being pressed by a
superior force of Merritt's admirable cavalry. Away we went
across the entire front of the infantry, a line four miles long.
The infantry, with burnished guns and bristling bayonets,
were wheeling into position, and they made many a jest as
we passed along their lines. They wanted to know what
had become of "that mule of Morgan's," and implored us to
"come down out of our hats." They knew we were "in
there, because they could see our ears a-working."
The bands were playing, the drums sounded the long-roll,
the shrill fife pierced the November air, the bugles sounded
various calls, artillery rolled to the front, the skirmish lines
were hotly engaged, the roar of the battle had commenced ;
but still blithe and gay the Stonewall Brigade and Gordon's
veterans good-naturedly jested with the cavalry. Apparently
"Sheridan's Ride," so-called, had not destroyed the morale
of these stout-hearted veterans who were marching along
with jest and song, ready, yea, eager, to again measure lances
with the boastful Federals.
Both armies were maneuvering in broad, apparently bound-
less, meadows on both sides of the valley pike, the grand
highway of armies. The fields very much resembled the
bluegrass pastures of Kentucky.
Having run the gauntlet of the infantry, we found that
Rosser's gallant boys had been driven back from the left
flank front to a line even with that of the infantry, but they
had brought with them one hundred and four prisoners, and
had killed and wounded many of the enemy.
We formed in line of battle, facing Winchester ; then we
faced toward the Alleghany Mountains, but were soon ordered
across the fields to form another line facing in a different
direction. The firing was heavy along the lines, but there
was no general engagement of the infantry. After much
changing of position our division faced Winchester again, and
then dismounted. Again mounting our horses, we sat for
222 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
half an hour in the piercing cold, when General Lomax rode
up and ordered General Cosby to follow him. The division
then again passed along the entire line of the infantry to the
position it had occupied in the morning. We passed General
Early in front of McL,aw's division. Although it was then
night heavy firing rolled along the front, the blazing guns
producing a fine display of fireworks. En route across the
valley we struck General John B. Gordon's division of infantry
at right angles ; they were in columns, marching to the rear,
and we then realized that Early was falling back ; that under
cover of a heavy battle line in front the army was slowly and
sullenly retiring. While waiting for them to pass the long
lines of infantry seemed interminable — an endless stream of
human beings. Our cavalry boys became impatient, and
occasionally seeing a gap in the marching columns they would
attempt to ride through, but the infantry would double-quick
to the point, with bayonets fixed, and give the cavalrymen to,
understand that they could either stand where they were
until they (the infantry) passed or fight — they did not care a
d — n which. An infantryman, who probably had eaten
nothing for two days, would propose to swap his gun for a
horse and throw in his rations. They were very lively, full
of fun, and would occasionally stop and cry out, " Rally, boys,
rally ! " " Here's the place to make a stand ! " " We can
whip them if a few men will only make a determined stand
here " — referring to the cries of their officers who had endeav-
ored to rally them at Cedar Creek.
We finally got through the columns of infantry, and were
then ordered by General Lomax to move across the country
to Front Ro3^al via Cedarville ; thence back to our former
position in Luray Valley.
Why the army was falling back no one seemed to know.
Some said General Early had intended to fight a general
battle, but had found Sheridan too strong ; others, that he
had made the " demonstration in force " to show Sheridan
that he was neither dead nor sleeping, and that his army was
not scattered and demoralized, as Sheridan had reported to
his admirers in the North. But whatever the object of the
movement many a poor fellow was left stark and cold upon
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 223
the field. For an hour or more after dark the firing was
heavy and incessant — raging fearfully in the cold, pitiless
moonlight. Although not an engagement of the whole army
it was a battle that would have been especially notable had it
occurred in any previous war in this country A great many
more graves were dug and additional numbers of our com-
rades were left " sleeping in the valley."
" Sink, O night, among thy mountains !
Let the cool, gray shadows fall !
Dying brothers, fighting demons —
Drop thy curtain over all !
" Through the thickening winter twilight,
Wide apart the battle rolled ;
In its sheath the saber rested,
And the cannon's lips grew cold."
When Lomax's division left the battlefield Cosby's brigade
marched in advance, and being unacquainted with the coun-
try the general secured a guide to conduct him across the
fields and through the woodlands to the Winchester and
Front Royal Turnpike. When within probably two miles of
the road the guide became confused and finally admitted
that he was lost. We halted on a cold, bleak plateau, and
scouts were sent forward to ascertain "where we were at."
While waiting on that desolate promontory the troops
experienced some of the horrible sensations of men freezing
to death. Many of the rank and file had neither blankets
nor overcoats, and, besides, they were ravenously hungry.
We did not dare build fires, as we had heard that General
McCausland had fought a cavalry fight with the enemy at
Cedarville during the afternoon. Cedarville was between us
and Front Royal, and we did not know but that the Federals
were in our immediate front. I shiver now when I think of
that terrible night — no fires, no blankets, no overcoats ;
hungry, freezing and lost in close proximity to the enemy.
Some poor fellows were almost wild with pain and fear — the
fear of freezing to death.
Who can question the patriotism of those heroic Confed-
erate soldiers, to fame and to fortune unknown ? No pay, no
224 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
bounty, scant clothing and little food. Exposed to the bit-
ter cold and to every danger they unhesitatingly performed
any required duty, marched almost continuously and fought
desperately. The record of their marches was written in
blood from their shoeless feet along the roads of the valley
and other highways of the South. The milestones were
battlefields and — graves.
I never experienced a more welcome illustration of how
the unexpected happens than on that night. While my
teeth were chattering and my frail frame was shaking like an
aspen leaf Tom Hayden, the bugler, cautiously approached
me, placed his arms affectionately around my neck and —
blew his breath in my face.
Gentle reader, do you think I was insulted ? Not much.
That breath was laden with the fragrant fumes of " moon-
shine brandy," and wonderingly, but unquestioningly, I
heeded his mute signal, " dropped to all fours," and following
his lead crept through the grass to a pack-mule, which I
recognized as one belonging to Doctor Scott, the surgeon
and was supposed to be guarded by the doctor's factotum,
Bob Hudson. Bob seemed to be off duty — probably drunk
or undergoing the process of freezing to death. I knew,
instinctively, that I was in the immediate presence of the
" elixir of life," and did not stop to worry about poor Bob's
condition or fate. I kept my eyes on Hayden, and saw him
crawl to the gentle and generous mule. I did likewise. Two
canteens, dangling from the pommel of the saddle, glistened
in the pale moonlight. Hayden, in a half erect position,
inverted one of the canteens and let the contents thereof
flow in an uninterrupted stream down his throat. No words
were spoken. None were necessary. All I had to do was
to imitate my comrade, and I imitated hitn until those can-
teens were sucked dry. Is there a Good Templar living who
would have acted differently under similar circumstances ? I
think not. The fire-water had a wonderfully exhilarating
effect upon us. That was really a generous act in Hayden.
He might have appropriated to himself the two canteens,
but he preferred to divide " the find " with a comrade. Good
old Tom ! I believe I should have frozen to death if his
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 225
olfactories had not located that life-giving elixir. I shall not
attempt to quote the awful language of Doctor Scott when
he discovered the vacuum in those canteens.
His terrific rage and the sulphurous condition of the cir-
cumambient atmosphere can be better imagined than
described. Poor Hudson bore the brunt of the tirade, while
Hayden and I, like Csesar's wife, were above suspicion.
Our ; scouts finally reported that the enemy had passed
beyond the point where we would come into the road.
Moving onto the pike we found ourselves within one mile of
the Federal vedettes. We then marched toward Front Royal,
passing over McCausland's battlefield. It was a dreary, dis-
mal march. The houses were filled with wounded men. In
one lay the inspector-general of McCausland's brigade mor-
tally wounded. By the roadside and in the fields, stark and
stiff, lay the frozen bodies of dead soldiers — rebel soldiers !
Their wan faces looked piteous and ghastly in the dim moon-
light. Dead horses, saddles, bridles, wagons, sabers, broken
guns, hats, coats and a burning caisson mutely told the story
of the sanguinary combat between the fighting McCausland
and his little brigade and a whole division of the enemy,
commanded by General Powell, whom McCausland always
called "That d — d one-eyed Powell." He was McCaus-
land's old antagonist, and he hated him thoroughly. Powell
was commanding Averill's division, the same that Morgan
had defeated at Wytheville.
" The pale moon rose up softly,
And calmly she looked down
On the red sands of the battlefield
With bloody corpses strewn."
The fight had taken place in open fields, where the enemy,
by reason of their greatly superior numbers, had every
advantage. McCausland's brigade had been literally run
over. In fact it was rashness in McCausland to make a stand
at all. He was driven back across the Shenandoah, losing
two colonels and other officers, many of his men and two
pieces of artillery. I drop the curtain on the dismal scene.
226 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
We recrossed the Shenandoah, leaving McCausland's dead
braves alone in their glory.
" Farewell ! fallen brothers ; tho' this life is o'er
There's another in which we shall meet you once more."
We passed McCausland's lone vedette, standing specter-
like on the overhanging bank, peering over " Guard Hill"
for a blue-coat or the gleam of a deadly rifle. McCausland's
scattered brigade at midnight was guarding the fords of the
Shenandoah. The Fourth Kentucky and Captain Jenkins'
company relieved McCausland and guarded the front until
the next morning.
For some days we marched and countermarched. The
enemy made a number of demonstrations ; skirmishes were
frequent, but " that d — d one-eyed Powell" made no serious
effort to cross the river.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 227
Farewell to the Valley — General Early's Opinion of the
Cavalry — Good News from Rosser — New Clothing — Famous
Virginia Springs— The Return March— Grave of Captain
Cleburne — Mrs. John B. Floyd.
NOVEMBER 24, 1864, General Early ordered General
Cosby to report to General Breckinridge, then in Ten-
nessee. General Early himself selected our route, directing
General Cosby to return by way of Warm Springs and L,ew-
isburg. Grimly smiling, the old general remarked to Cosby
that the people on that route had more horses to spare than
those living along the valley pike. He had never been an
admirer of the cavalry and was wont to say, ' ' They are only
good to stampede and to steal horses," and that "Nobody
ever saw a dead man wearing spurs." However, he had
somewhat modified his opinion. His horsemen had done
valuable service when his infantry was stampeded at Cedar
Creek, and the accomplished General Rosser and his merry
cavaliers had just covered themselves with glory by a dash
into Piedmont, resulting in the capture of about one thousand
Federals, fifteen hundred horses, two thousand cattle, eight
cannon and innumerable small arms, all of which had been
brought to New Market and presented to the cynical old
general as trophies of the generalship and esprit de corps of
the cavalry, especially of Rosser's Eaurel brigade.
Just at this time also came the cheering news that General
Breckinridge, who had been General Early's associate in the
grand demonstration on Washington City, had signally
defeated Gillem in Tennessee, capturing seven or eight hun-
dred prisoners, six cannon, caissons, horses, fifty loaded
wagons, ambulances, etc. Good for Breckinridge ! We all
rejoiced at the humiliation of Gillem, our old antagonist, the
slayer of General Morgan.
When we started to rejoin Breckinridge our horses were
nearly starved and the men were in a like condition. Euckily
228 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
about this time the brigade drew probably four hundred suits
of most excellent dark gray clothing, of English manufacture,
which had recently run the blockade. The clothing came
none too soon, as the troops were suffering greatly from the
Spitzbergen weather which had prevailed nearly all the while
we were in the valley. One night I shall never forget. The
northwest wind was a howling blast. The force of the storm
was similar to the euroclydon of the seas and the tornado of
the woodlands. No sky, no stars were visible. The moon
had the appearance of a white flower in a leaden vase. Cap-
tain Guerrant and myself, more fortunate than many, secured
a wisp of hay for a bed, and a buffalo robe served for a cov-
erlet. But the wind whistled through the old tent, the trees
moaned, the tent creaked and finally fell down, the horses
neighed, and we shivered while we longed for morning. We
thought of the comforts of home and the cost of liberty.
The heavens, obscured by leaden snow-clouds, resembled a
polar sky; the L,apland fields bounded by mountains deep in
Alpine snow and swept by Siberian blasts afforded no asylum
from the arctic cold.
Our route led us by the way of the noted Hot Springs,
Warm Springs, White Sulphur Springs, Red Sulphur, Red
Sweet Sulphur and Gray Sulphur Springs. They are all in
a narrow, romantic-looking valley, and at each of them was
a large hotel and a number of other buildings, such as shoot-
ing galleries, bowling alleys and cottages. The springs are
strung along the valley not more than a mile or two apart.
General Cosby made it convenient to go into camp one night
at White Sulphur Springs, where the cavalrymen freely
roamed over the grounds and through the hotels and other
buildings, all of them being "banquet halls deserted."
Our headquarters for one night were at an unpretentious
mansion, where resided the widow of General John B. Floyd,
formerly of President Buchanan's cabinet. Mrs. Floyd was
a motherly, intelligent lady, who sat knitting beside the
marble bust of her husband in the parlor.
Near Dublin we passed over the battlefield where the
Federal general, Crook, had killed General Jenkins on the
9th of May, 1864, the day before Morgan defeated Averill
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 229
at Wytheville. Jenkins had a small force which fought
Crook's superior numbers most desperately Three hundred
dismounted men from our camp near Saltville, under com-
mand of Colonel D. Howard Smith and Major Diamond, had
been sent by rail to Dublin to assist in repelling Crook's
raiders. This little detachment met and fought Crook's vic-
torious column most gallantly. Here I saw the grave of
Captain Cleburne, of Morgan's second brigade, who had been
buried where he fell. On a simple board at the head of his
lonely grave a comrade had inscribed the following : " Dulce
et decorum est pro patria mori.'''' Captain Cleburne was a
brother of General Pat Cleburne, killed at Franklin, Tenn.
230 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
The " Boys " Entertain their Comrades with Stories of Val-
ley Experience — Stoneman on a Raid — Burbridge after
more Salt — General Duke is Captured but Escapes — Gen-
eral Duke Defeated at Kingsport and Colonel Dick Mor-
gan Captured — Captain Bart Jenkins Captured at Abing-
don but Kills two Soldiers and Escapes.
HAVING returned to General Breckinridge, near Wythe-
ville, we learned that General Stoneman commanding
a division of cavalry composed of the brigades of Gillem and
Burbridge was advancing from Tennessee, his objective point
probably being Saltville. Burbridge coming for more salt ?
We went into camp to obtain a short season of rest and to
be reviewed and inspected by General Breckinridge.
Colonel Giltner also was in the vicinity of Wytheville, with
three hundred disabled and dismounted men who had not
gone down the valley with Cosby.
The weather being extremely cold, the soldiers, grouped
around roaring fires, were entertained by the valley veterans
who detailed their experience in the region of the Shenan-
doah. Their stories of their association with the army in the
valley were graphic, patriotic and amusing.
The dismounted boys were especially interested in every-
thing we could tell them concerning the Stonewall brigade,
and in the many legends that had been told us respecting
the personality, character and marvelous genius of Jackson.
We had seen his grave at Lexington, and his battlefields at
Harrisonburg, Port Republic, Cross Keys, Front Royal,
Strasburg, Fishers Hill, New Market, etc. We told them of
old Jubal Early and his great white overcoat, his slouch hat
with the black plume, his short gray beard and light hair,
his red face, the large field-glasses and the inevitable can-
teen ; of his battlefield at Cedar Creek, and of the untruth-
fulness of the poetry in "Sheridan's Ride;" of General
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 231
Imboden, the polished scholar and polite gentleman ; of the
dashing cavalry generals, Lomax, Rosser, Bradley T. John-
son and McCausland, and of their gay and experienced caval-
iers; of the Natural Bridge, Weir's Cave, Luray, the springs,
While at Wytheville Captain Cantrill, of Duke's brigade,
brought to Breckinridge's headquarters two black flags cap-
tured from bushwhackers, eight of whom having been
killed while fighting under them. The others had fled to
the mountain fastnesses.
Lieutenant-Governor Richard T. Jacob, of Kentucky, had
been banished by the Federals and was temporarily living
with Breckinridge's military family.
About the middle of December General Breckinridge sent
a dispatch to General Cosby, still in command of our brigade,
stating that General Duke had been driven back from Kings-
port and that Stoneman was evidently advancing on Abing-
don and Saltville. He ordered Cosby to make a forced
march to Saltville and head off Stoneman if possible.
We started at daylight, in rain, mud and snow. A cold
wind blew directly in our faces all day. It was one of those
days that make soldiers forget their religion, and, when,
instead of singing pastorales and breathing pater nosters, they
indulged in maledictions and inelegant "cuss words." On
we went, through Mt. Airy, Marion and Seven-mile Ford,
reaching Saltville that night, having marched about forty
miles without halting. We learned en route that Stoneman
had captured two trains of cars near Bristol, and had defeated
Duke at Kingsport, capturing Colonel Dick Morgan, a num-
ber of men and wagons.
We went into camp without anything for men or horses
to eat. However, we were glad of an opportunity to sleep
and rest, notwithstanding the horrid weather — the rain
having turned to sleet. Before daylight, the bugles sounded
their warning notes and we were placed in line of battle,
expecting an attack from the enemy who we learned were
approaching from Abingdon, they having captured that town
early in the night. General Duke, who soon arrived with
his little brigade, said Stoneman had between five and six
232 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
thousand men, and was making a triumphal march, there
being no troops of consequence to oppose him. This was
depressing news, as we had only about one thousand cavalry
and two or three hundred militia at the Saltworks.
Colonel Giltner now took command of his brigade, reliev-
ing General Cosby, who resumed the command of his own
brigade, formerly that of General George B. Hodge.
We remained in line of battle all day, but Stoneman did not
come. He had gone in another direction. During the night
a Federal surgeon, named Gardner, I think, was captured by
Oscar Coleman, of the Fourth Kentucky, who had command
of a picket post. This same surgeon had been captured in
the former battle at Saltville. He was gruff, shrewd and
disagreeable. He took pleasure in telling us that Stoneman
had burned the court-house square, depot, jail and other of
the best buildings in Abingdon and large commissary stores
at Bristol ; that from Bristol the Federals had gone to Glade
Spring Depot and captured a passenger train filled with
negroes, running from Saltville. Two other trains, freight,
escaped and returned to Saltville.
Still another night we remained in battle array in the cold
sleet, without shelter, awaiting an expected attack from the
direction of Glade Spring. It seemed difficult for General
Breckinridge to determine the enemy's intentions or to
decide upon what movement to make himself. Many doubted
that the enemy would attempt to take the Saltworks while
we were in possession of them. The position was a strong
one, and General Burbridge knew from experience what
would probably happen to an assaulting column. General
Duke while scouting in the night was captured, but adroitly
managed to escape before the enemy discovered his identity.
Captain Bart Jenkins and a number of other officers were
asleep in Abingdon when the Federals entered the town.
Captain Jenkins was captured successively by two soldiers.
He killed both of them and escaped from the town. Captain
J. J. McAfee and Barney Giltner were also surprised, but
escaped, and walked to Glade Spring. Those two young
gentlemen were ever seeking "square meals" and a bed of
" goose hair."
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 233
We finally learned that Stoneman was moving toward
Wytheville, burning bridges and playing "high, jenks"
About 3 o'clock in the morning our brigade was ordered
to move, taking the advance, in the direction of Wytheville.
Finding the muddy road almost impassable we turned into a
field and waited until after daylight for General Breckinridge.
234 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
The Battle of Marion — General John C. Breckinridge —
Witcher and His Nighthawks— The Kentuckians Win
Choice of Position — Incidents.
" Beside him many a war-horse fumes,
Around him waves a sea of plumes."
THE battle of Marion was fought in the rain, mud and
cold, on Saturday and Sunday, December 17 and 18,
1864, between about one thousand Kentuckians, under Breck-
inridge, and four thousand or more Federals, commanded by
General Stoneman. Among the Federals was a regiment or
two of "smoked Yankees" — as the Confederates facetiously
called the negro troops.
The morose and dejected Kentuckians, waiting in the mud
and cold, recovered their nonchalant gayety when General
Breckinridge appeared and rode to the front.
What a handsome and imposing appearance he made ! Tall,
straight, dignified, he was the ideal Kentuckian among Ken-
" His stately mien as well implied
A high born heart, a martial pride."
Elegantly appareled, wearing the full dress uniform of a
Confederate major-general, his bearing was indeed knightly.
A brilliant staff of dashing officers followed in his train.
Among them were Colonel J. Stoddard Johnston, adjutant-
general, and Captain Blackburn, aid-de-camp.
While this imposing, handsome general and glittering
retinue slowly rode along the column, going to the front,
it was interesting to note the many quaint remarks, some
witty, some grave, some cynical and others prophetic, made
by a thousand Kentucky cavalrymen. Such as the follow-
ing : "Boys, he'll do." " W-h-e-w ! ain't he grand?"
" Boys, that man has been Vice-President of the United
GEN. JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IX DIXIE. 235
The column stopped near Seven-mile Ford, in the rain and
mud, to feed the horses. A courier from dauntless Colonel
Witcher brought the intelligence that Stoneman was coming
back and that he (Witcher) was fighting the Federals at Mt.
Airy, beyond Marion. We moved brisk^- along, passing the
burned depot at the ford and crossed Holston River, where
stood the great mansion of Preston, and marched on to Marion,
where we met another courier from "Witcher, saj-ing that he
was being hard pressed, and that he was retreating somewhat
hurriedly before overwhelming numbers. It being apparent
that a collision would soon occur the Confederates tightened
their belts, looked to their arms and grimly rode forward to
battle. About two miles beyond Marion, near the covered
bridge, over Holston River, we met Witcher' s little battalion
retreating rapidly before two Federal regiments. The enemy,
not being aware of our proximity, recklessly charged
Witcher, resulting in a colliding of the opposing forces in the
Our advance battalion, the Tenth Kentuck}- Mounted
Rifles, I think, quickly dismounted and poured a deadby vol-
ley into the confused, recoiling Federal column, which
retreated faster than it had advanced. Three Federal officers,
loath to retreat, gallantly stood their ground, fighting with
saber and pistol. One of them was killed, and the others,
one a major, were captured. Giltner's brigade, being in
advance, dismounted and double-quicked to take possession
of a hill on the left, alreadj* occupied by a part of Stoneman's
force and plainly the key to the position. The Tenth Ken-
tucky Mounted Rifles, a squadron of the Fourth Kentucky,
under Captain James T. Willis, the Tenth Kentucky Cavalry
and Captain Bart Jenkins' troop, if I remember correctly,
charged the hill and took possession of it. Captain Tom Bar-
rett, commanding the remaining companies of the Fourth
Kentucky, moved to a position behind the rail fence, on low,
open ground, forming the center of our lines and command-
ing the approaches to the bridge. Cosby's and Duke's
brigades deplo5 r ed to the right of the railroad and turnpike
and drove the enemy from a low range of hills, thus form-
ing the left of the battle line. It was then late in the
236 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
afternoon, but the enemy made several unsuccessful attempts
to break through our lines. General firing ceased at night-
fall, and our weary troops hoped to obtain some much-needed
rest and sleep, but desultory firing continued nearly all night.
At 8 or 9 o'clock General Breckinridge ordered the entire line
to be advanced. It was very dark and the opposing lines were
so close, probably not more than two hundred yards apart,
that messengers bearing orders to the several battalions had
to proceed slowly and cautiously, for fear of passing through
gaps in the lines and falling into the hands of the enemy.
While bearing an order to Captain Jenkins I became hope-
lessly lost, and expected every moment to ride into the
Federal lines. Neither side had dared to build fires, and
there I was alone, very lonesome, and so completely " turned
round " that I even had no idea of the direction back or for-
ward to headquarters. I was afraid to go backward or
forward, to the right or to the left. However, it would not
do for me to remain motionless. I must move in some direc-
tion and trust to luck. I rode along slowly, very slowly,
until finally I saw a glimmer of light in the distance. I
approached it stealthily, and to my great relief found a section
of our artillery, and then I knew "where I was at.' To
this day I do not know what part of the field I was on that
night when lost. Other messengers had somewhat similar
experience. Some time in the night the enemy made a
furious assault on Captain Barrett's line at the bridge, but
were promptly driven back. Lieutenant Tenny Bond and
several men of the Fourth Kentucky were wounded, but the
saddest of all was the killing of Johnny Vallandingham, a
mere boy, who had only recently left his home in Owen
County, Ky., to join the Confederacy.
The line could not be advanced that night, and both sides
contented themselves by keeping up a desultory fusillade
until the dawn of Sunday morning.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 237
Battle op Marion (Continued) — No Sunday in the Army — A Des-
perate Combat— Stoneman Repulsed — Duke and Witcher
Demoralize the " Smoked Yankees."
BY a singular fatality nearly all of our most desperately
fought engagements occurred on Sundays. A soldier
took little account of time and rarely knew the day of the
week. There was no Sunday in the army.
During the small hours of the night a number of the
enemy, probably seventy-five or one hundred, effected a
lodgment within the bridge — a fatal movement to them. At
the dawn of day they were quickly made to realize that they
were in the "wrong box." They could not get out, and to
stay within the trap was uncomfortable and dangerous. The
lynx-eyed sharpshooters of the Fourth Kentucky were exult-
ant and watched the point of exit from the bridge as closely
and eagerly as a cat watches a rat-hole. The first Federal
who emerged from the bridge and made a dash for his base
bit the dust, riddled by bullets. Another attempted a ' ' home
run" and shared the same fate; then another and another.
It was fun for the Kentuckians, but death to the gentlemen
in blue. It was a case of " I'll be killed if I do, and I'll be
killed if I don't." Again and again some bold soldier boy
would undertake to make the dangerous run, only to be
stopped by the unerring minie ball from a Kentuckian's
Enfield rifle. In all, probably twenty attempted the hazard-
ous flight, and all met a common fate. Warned by the fate
of their comrades, the remaining Federals cowered in the
bridge, and with fear and trembling awaited " coming events."
When it became evident that there was not another bluecoat
willing to become a target for the grim-humored Kentucky
sharpshooters, a small piece of artillery was ordered to take
position in the orchard within three hundred yards of the
bridge, and shell the Federals out. But the shrieking, rico-
chetting, bursting bombs, awfully terrifying, failed to dislodge
238 KENTUCK7~CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
them. They preferred to endure the terrors of artillery rather
than hear the death-song of the Kentuckians' minie ball. A
few were killed within the bridge, and the others remained
there until night, when they sneaked out, the sharpshooters
being no longer able to see the sights of their rifles.
The main battle continued all day in nearly even scale, the
fighting being obstinate, first one side and then the other
gaining an advantage. The general battle did not begin very
early in the morning, Stoneman hesitatingly and leisurely
making disposition of his troops for the combat. Some two
thousand horses could be seen on the hills in front of our
center, but the riders were invisible. A deep ravine lay
between the two forces. The first movement Stoneman made
was an attempt to turn our left, held by Giltner's brigade.
His assaulting columns met such a withering fire from Ken-
tucky rifles that they were afraid to venture across the ravine,
and they forthwith abandoned the "turning business" on
that part of the field. Failing to make an impression on
our left and center, Stoneman massed a heavy column and
made a vicious attack on our right, held by the small brigades
of Duke and Cosby. Here occurred probably the fiercest
fight of the day. Burbridge's ' 'smoked Yankees " were in front
of Cosby, and whenever they ventured from cover the Fourth
Kentucky boys, who were on Cosby's left, poured a terrific
cross-fire into them, and the colored troops, who did not
always fight nobly, gave a howl of terror and quickly became
A body of Federal cavalry attempted a charge and even
approached the bridge, but "there stood that d — d Fourth
Kentucky," cheering and yelling for them to " come on," but
although it was a cold December day, it was too hot for the
Northmen, who declined the warm invitation and hurriedly
sought a place of refuge.
In the afternoon General Duke and Colonel Witcher moved
around and beyond the extreme left of the Federal line, and
making a vigorous attack, scared Burbridge's "smoked
Yankees " from the field.
Although a hard rain was falling and the Kentuckians
were knee-deep in mud, they cheered lustily, feeling confi-
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 239
dent of their ability to defeat the enemy and to probably
capture Stoneman's entire force.
During the latter part of the day Stoneman was content
to fight on the defensive. General Stoneman himself nar-
rowly escaped capture when Duke and Witcher made the
sortie on his left.
Just before dark we saw a column of Federals followed by
wagons coming from the direction of Wytheville. This -was
a part of Gillem's brigade, which Stoneman had sent down
Rich Valley to destroy the Saltworks, while he should enter-
tain us at Marion. Finding himself hard pressed, however,
Stoneman was forced to recall Gillem.
At nightfall the fighting ceased, but the rain and cold
increased. For two days we had been in the mud, cold and
rain, fighting almost continuously, without anything to eat.
On this Sunday night, however, after the battle, scant rations
which had been cooked by the ladies of Marion were served.
It was apparent to the humblest soldier that the enemy
had been beaten. The Confederates had demonstrated their
ability to hold their position and to repel every effort made
by Stoneman to break through their lines.
240 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
The Battle of Marion (Continued)— Enigmatical StraTEGETics
— A Wide Open Door for General Stoneman to Enter
AFTER nightfall General Breckinridge ordered the little
army to withdraw from its position and move out on
the road to Marion. On account of the rain, cold and dark-
ness and the close proximity of the enemy it was a difficult
and somewhat dangerous movement to make. Desultory
firing continued all the while, and it was not until i o'clock
Monday morning that the movement was successfully
effected. But there was much surprise among the troops,
and the query went round, " What does all this mean ? " Some
thought we were going to Saltville ; others, that General
Breckinridge was attempting to execute a strategical
maneuver. However, the majority of officers and men
thought we should have retained our position at the bridge.
Stoneman had been forced to fight on the defensive. We
were between him and Saltville, and he was a long way
from his base, in an unfavorable position for retreat. We
were aware that Colonel Buckley, returning from the lead
mines, which he had failed to destroy, had passed along the
Rye Valley Road, on our right. Buckley's force was of
inconsequential strength and attracted but little attention.
Notwithstanding the excellent morale of the troops, elated
by their successes in the battles of Saturday and Sunday, we
were now making the quid obscurum movement of this inex-
plicable campaign. General Breckinridge had not been out-
generaled nor had he been out-fought. He was greatly
outnumbered, it is true, Stoneman having five men to his
one, but his little army of Kentuckians had defeated every
movement of the Federals and were by no means loath to
confront them again on Monday morning. At sundown on
Sunday the Confederates were conquerors, and they protested
against playing the role of the vanquished. In the light of
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 241
subsequent events it appeared that General Breckinridge had
out-generaled himself. He threw wide open the door and
permitted Stoneman to march unopposed to Saltville. The
successful battles at Marion brought us none of the fruits of
When we arrived in the town of Marion, after midnight,
General Breckinridge, rather excitedly, ordered the column
to take the road to the left, leading over into Rye Valley.
Really it was no road — simply a mountain stream, swollen
by the continuous rains, the water coming down much after
the fashion of that at Lodore and making it almost impossi-
ble for us to proceed.
The head of the column became lost on the mountain,
and when we reached the forks of the road General Breckin-
ridge was again lost and unable to decide which road to take.
Finally we started up a dark ravine and got lost again. Then
we countermarched a mile and went up a mountain, where
we halted on the summit, in the brush, and waited for day-
light. The mountain was bleak and bare of comfort. The
wood was too wet to burn, everybody was drowsy, but it was
too cold to sleep. General Breckinridge sat on a stump,
looking mad, dreary and forlorn. That seat on the stump
was a striking contrast to that he had occupied when presid-
ing over the United States Senate. The officers and men sat
around on stumps, logs and stones, nodding and swearing.
At day dawn we moved down the mountain to Rye Valley,
turned up the valley, marched nearly all day, left the valley
and went across to Mt. Airy, when we were once more on the
Wytheville and Marion Road, having gone entirely around
the enemy. Moving on to Marion we found no enemy —
gone, of course.
Citizens said the Federals had lost about two hundred
killed and wounded, and that they threw some of their dead
into the river. The dead "smoked Yankees" were left
where they fell, unburied.
General Duke, with a detachment of picked men, and Cap-
tain T. M. Barrett, with a squadron of the best mounted men
of the Fourth Kentucky, were hurried forward toward Salt-
242 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
ville, the rest of the troops following, hungry, cold, sleepy ,,
wet, muddy and — mad.
When we reached Preston's great mansion we found the
enemy had left nothing in it but cold, empty space. General
Duke and Captain Cal Morgan were there waiting for the
general. It was from this place on that dark, cheerless night,
December 20th, that we saw the light of burning Saltville.
The enemy did but little damage at Saltville. Of the three
thousand kettles they broke about one-third and burned a
number 'of the sheds. They were in a hurry and did not
appear to understand the business of destroying saltworks.
The wells were uninjured and there remained sufficient salt
to supply every demand until the termination of the war.
The lead mines, never of much importance, were not seriously
damaged. The most serious damage done by the Federals
was the destruction of Confederate commissary, quartermas-
ter and ordnance stores at Bristol and Abingdon. In fact the
loss of the ordnance stores doubtless had much to do in
embarrassing General Breckinridge's movements. Our ammu-
nition was running low at Marion, and it was impossible to
obtain a supply so long as Stoneman remained between us
Stoneman and Gillem fell back into Tennessee, while Bur-
bridge retreated, closely pressed by our forces, by way of
Pound Gap into Kentucky — a long, desolate march. Many
of his men had frozen ears and noses when they reached the
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 243
The Captains op the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry.
Captain W. D. Ray,
AFTERWARD major of the regiment, commanded Com-
pany A until the death of Major Parker. He was a
middle-aged man, of medium height, stout, ruddy com-
plexion, genial temperament and naturally a military-
looking man. His face was smooth-shaven, excepting a
notably heavy mustache, which gave him a somewhat fierce
expression. He had been a member of the Buckner Guards
and was a brave, reliable officer.
Captain Ben Duncan,
Who had been first lieutenant of Company A, succeeded to
the captaincy when Captain Ray was made major. He was a
rather small man with a compact, sturdy frame, of sandy
complexion, quiet but alert, pleasing in manner, cool and
intrepid, witty, intelligent and one of the very best " all-
round" officers in the regiment.
Captain John G. Scott.
Slightly above medium height, slender, somewhat delicate
in appearance, hair tinged with gray, voice rather strong,
head carried high, graceful, dashing and one of the " bravest
of the brave " — such was Captain Scott of Company B. He
was affable in manner and one of the most popular officers in
the command. He usually rode a gray horse, and when
charging the enemy he had a habit of waving his hat above
his head that had a most inspiring effect upon his own and
other troopers. He was a model cavalry officer, his favorite
tactics being to dash right at the enemy ; and when such
opportunity presented itself he went at them like a veritable
thunderbolt of war, being as irresistible as Napoleon's
244 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
impetuous Murat. "When excited and impatient he would
sometimes " cuss " a little, but instead of offending any one
there was a certain charm about his profanity that had the
effect of putting the men in good humor.
Captain J. Tarrtn Alexander,
Commander of Company C, a very large company, composed
almost wholly of Owen County boys, was one of the most
courageous and efficient officers in the regiment. He had
dark complexion, black hair and eyes, and was slender and
very tall. He was plain and unassuming, cool and indiffer-
ent to danger — having many characteristics in common with
Captain Barrett. No company in the regiment did more or
better service than Captain Alexander's big Company C.
They were especial favorites and were denominated " Old
Captain Thomas E. Moore.
Company D, made up of " boys " from Pendleton, Har-
rison, Bourbon, Kenton and Campbell Counties, was
commanded by Captain Thomas E. Moore, of Bourbon, an
officer sans peur et sans reproche. Of medium size, delicate,
neat in dress, prepossessing in appearance, quiet and court-
eous, Captain Moore was one of the most gentlemanly officers
in the brigade ; a man of whom no officer or soldier ever
spoke a disrespectful word. His appearance suggested a
dry goods merchant rather than a bluff captain of cavalry,
but beneath that quiet exterior was the indomitable spirit of
the bravest of cavaliers. He seemed alike impervious to fear
or excitement, and in the din and roar of battle he was the
same calm, unimpassioned man as when quietly conversing
with comrades around the bivouac fire. In a desperate hand-
to-hand saber fight with a Michigan regiment at Mossy
Creek, Tenn., he was severely wounded in the arm, and
although the wound was painful and slow to heal he placed
the arm in a sling and continued to perform every duty as
nonchalantly as if nothing had happened.
CAPT. THOS. M, BARRETT.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 245
Captain Sam Duncan,
Of Company E, was a rather large, strong-looking man,
rotund, slightly above medium height. He had dark hair, a
pleasing face and wore a heavy mustache — a bluff, rollicking,
fun-loving officer, brave as Julius Caesar; plain in manner
and speech, he usually wore a short cavalry jacket. I never
saw him in full dress uniform, and do not think he ever
dressed in that sort of style. He was witty and immensely
popular. He, too, had been a member of the Buckner
Guards, and as a private soldier in that peerless company he
won an enviable reputation for gallant daring among men
who were all conspicuouslj- brave.
It is, however, on the humorous side of the captain's char-
acter that those who knew him best delight to dwell. He and
Captain Shuck Whitaker were pre-eminently the two witty
and " funny " officers of the regiment. There is no limit to
the humorous stories told by them and of them. Their wit
and humor ran in different channels, but it was all " funny "
just the same.
His comrades of the Buckner Guards tell of an incident
that occurred at Shiloh. Just before the beginning of that
great battle, when the opposing lines were so close that ordi-
nary sounds were heard from one line to the other, Duncan
was on the extreme outpost one night as a picket guard.
Being weary and sleepy, too, he for once forgot military
regulations and went off into the " Land of Nod." He had
also been so careless as to dismount and hitch his horse,
fastening the rein to a fence rail. In a short time he was
awakened by a commotion in the camp of the enemy, and in
his dazed condition, not being fully awake, thinking the
enemy was advancing, he hurriedly sought to unhitch his
horse, preparatory to mounting and riding away In his
hurry he failed to unfasten the rein in as brief time as he
thought necessary, and instead he shouldered the rail,
mounted his horse, and thus rode triumphantly back to his
The genial captain was the proud owner of a pretty little
gray mare, and upon one occasion, being some miles from
camp on a private scouting expedition, he found a small
246 KENTUCKY CA V ALTERS IN DIXIE.
" moonshine distillery," and forthwith confiscated to his owr
use and benefit a liberal quantity of the " mountain dew '
found therein. L,ike all "Confeds" the jovial captain was
not troubled with any prohibition nonsense, and it was noi
long until the "dew" "took hold," making him merrilj
frolicsome and ready for any absurd adventure, dangerous 01
Taking a bridle path through the woods, going to the
encampment, the thought occurred to him that the little graj
mare could be made to climb a tree. While endeavoring tc
make the frisky little mare perform this unheard-of circus
feat Colonel Giltner appeared upon the scene, and instantlj
comprehending the status the following dialogue ensued, the
colonel being inwardly convulsed with laughter but out
wardly preserving his usual hauteur and speaking ir
characteristic, measured, emphatic tones :
' ' Well, — ■ Captain Duncan, — what — in — the — world — are
— you — trying — to — do ? "
" Hey ! Hello, colonel ! I'm trying to make this mare
climb a tree."
" Captain Duncan, — I — must — say — I'm — ashamed — of—
" What's that, Colonel Giltner? You say you're ashamec
" Yes, Captain Duncan, I — must — say — I — am."
" Well, look here, Colonel Giltner, I'm ashamed of you
too, and what's more, I've been ashamed of you a long
time ! "
The colonel rode away, leaving the doughty captain alone
in his glory. Upon coming into camp the colonel related
the circumstances in such an inimitably droll manner thai
the narration was about as funny as Duncan's attempt tc
make the mare climb a tree.
Captain Duncan was captured in the horrible fight al
Rheatown, Tenn., and remained a prisoner of war on John-
sons Island until the close of the war.
4 ^m m^ *
LIEUT. H. H. ADCOCK.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 247
Captain Thomas M. Barrett.
First Lieutenant T. M. Barrett was promoted to the cap-
taincy of Company F, Giltner's old company, when the latter
was made colonel at the organization of the regiment at
Captain Barrett was a young man with black hair and
beard, quiet, staid and firm. Like Captain Alexander he
was very tall and distinguished for good, hard, common
sense and for cool, nonchalant bearing in battle. The com-
manding general frequently called for a detachment from the
Fourth Kentucky when he wished some especially hazardous
duty performed, and upon such occasions Captain Barrett and
his gallant company were often detailed to report to the
general. At one time General Breckinridge sent them upon
an expedition that a number of officers denominated as " hor-
rible, most horrible." Captain Barrett fully realized the
danger, but he and his men, apparently without a quiver of
fear, unhesitatingly and successfully performed the service as
commanded. Captain Barrett was a peculiarly conspicuous
figure on a skirmish line, by reason of his tall form, which
could be seen moving up and down his line unconcernedly,
apparently unconscious that the air was full of whizzing bul-
lets, hurtling grape and shrieking shells. I well remember
one occasion when serving with Longstreet, in Tennessee.
Captain Barrett was on the skirmish line in an extremely
exposed position ; his men were lying down and under cover,
but he himself was moving about, his form seemingly taller
than ever, while the Federal sharpshooters were popping
away at him — yet he was as undisturbed and void of nervousr
ness as when at home in his elegant mansion on la belle
riviere. Upon this occasion some one of the staff officers,
pointing to the skirmish line, said : " Just look at Tom Bar-
rett. The d — d fool is determined to get himself killed."
Lieutenant Henry H. Adcock
Was virtually captain of Company E, he having commanded
that company from the time of Captain Duncan's capture,
October, 1863, until the close of the war. Somewhat above
248 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
medium height, rotund and sturdy in body, black hair, brown
eyes, a pleasing face, suave, gentle, yet positive, courtly man-
ners, Lieutenant Adcock was one of the most popular and
reliable company officers in the Fourth Kentucky. Of
equable temperament, fearless and intelligent, he commanded
the respect of his superior officers and the unswerving fealty
of his company. Notably conscientious in the performance
of every duty, calm and collected in the hour of danger, the
officers did him homage while the men gave him affection and
admiration. His ability and natural military qualifications
eminently fitted him for high rank. There was a peculiar,
indescribable attractiveness about the man that commanded
the friendship and confidence of all with whom he came in
Once upon a time, as the novelist would say, when the
Fourth Kentucky was quite young in the service Lieutenant
Adcock, with a small detachment, unexpectedly ran into a
force of Federals, commanded by the notorious Colonel Jim
Lane, in ambush near one of the gaps in the Cumberland
Mountains. The first intimation Lieutenant Adcock had of
the presence of the enemy was the receiving of a volley, at
close range, from the unseen foe in the bushes. It came so
unexpectedly that the lieutenant, momentarily disconcerted,
exclaimed, " By grab, boys ! what do you mean ? " A part of his
hat brim had been shot away, but in the next breath he gave
the command to fire, and then something very remarkable
happened. When the " scrimmage " was over it was found
that nine shots fired by Adcock's men had killed thirteen
Federals, among them Colonel Lane. Will Glasscock, of
Trimble County, Ky., now has Lane's pistol in his possession,
and it is supposed he killed the Federal commander.
Captain James T. Wixus,
The dashing commander of Company G, was a young officer
of "infinite jest and most excellent fancy." Nearly six feet
in height, well proportioned, prompt and decisive, he was "a
knight good and true." His personality was extremely
attractive. The soul of honor, his escutcheon was as untar-
nished and bright as his smiling face. Officers and men
CAPT. R. O. GATHRIGHT,
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 249
extolled the excellences of Captain Jim Willis. He was a
brilliant cavalryman, whose sword flashed amid the smoke of
the fiercest combat and whose cheering voice nerved and
inspired his clansmen in the conflict. His gallant company
was composed principally of young men from Grant and
Captain R. O. Gathright,
Excepting Captain John Marshall, was the handsomest cap-
tain in the regiment. He was a man of medium size, lithe,
alert, impetuous, proud and daring. He had a notably fine
suit of black curling hair, black flashing eyes, and in his face
was an expression of blended gentleness and hauteur. Grace-
ful in person, of patrician lineage, brilliant in conversation,
possessing many and varied accomplishments, Captain Dick
Gathright, of Company H, challenged admiration in the
bivouac, on the march, on dress parade and on the field of
battle. He was at his best when charging the enemy. He
awaited the signal impatiently, and then with waving sword
he was off like a shot. The word "dashing " is peculiarly
applicable to Captain Dick Gathright. Courteous to his
superiors, they honored him ; considerate and sociable with
his subordinates, they believed in hini and unhesitatingly
followed his lead when gallantfy charging the foe. Captain
Gathright always dressed well, even elegantly — a most grace-
ful and pleasing figure to look upon.
" Not his the form nor his the eye,
That youthful maidens wont to fly."
Captain John J. Marshali,.
Young, frank, gay and light-hearted, yet upon occasion
properly dignified; courteous to his elders and superiors,
considerate of his equals and kind to his inferiors; tall,
straight, handsomefy dressed, of proud and lofty carriage,
Captain John Marshall was the most knightly-looking officer
in the brigade.
He was a son of General Humphre}- Marshall and com-
manded Company I, composed of men and boys from Henry
250 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
and Carroll Counties. It is not possible to conceive of a
more gallant, chivalrous officer than was this gifted, ill-fated
young man. His bravery amounted to rashness, an illustra-
tion of which came under my personal observation during
Longstreet's Tennessee campaign. While skirmishing in
front of our infantry, Captain Marshall, in an exposed posi-
tion, was closely pressed by dense lines of Federal infantry',
but instead of retiring he undaunted^ stood erect and waved
his hat and sword in proud defiance right in the faces of the
enemy, who themselves must have admired him. He finally
brought his men off the field, in company form, slowlj' and
defianth'. Retiring behind the infantry line Humphrey's
Mississippians cheered him and declared they had never seen
any such cavalry in the Army of Northern \ T irginia. The
compliment was really bestowed upon the entire regiment,
which was present, but Captain Marshall for a time was the
most conspicuous figure between the lines of the opposing
infantry, and he was the means of eliciting the applause the
more emphaticalhy. Longstreet's veterans said they were
accustomed to having the cavalry stir up a " racket " in front
and then retire, leaving them to do the fighting, but that the
Fourth Kentucky not only brought on the fight, they stayed
and helped to fight it out.
In Morgan's Kentucky campaign, during the fight on the
second morning at Mt. Sterling, Captain Marshall killed a
Federal with his saber.
This peerless young officer met a sad and untimely death
in a personal altercation with one who had been his friend, at
Russell Courthouse, Ya.
Captain H. Smith Chilton,
Who had been first lieutenant of Company I, succeeded to
the captaincy when Captain Marshall was killed. He was
more advanced in years than many of his brother officers.
He was somewhat above medium height and slightly inclined
to corpulency. He was dignified in manner, had a kind,
strong face and was a brave, trustworthy officer. There was
a solidity about the man that inspired confidence, and his
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 251
plain, unassuming manners made him very popular with his
men. Of course what I have said as to the gallantry of Cap-
tain Marshall and his company will apply to Captain Chilton,
he being with the company second in command. Under his
leadership the company lost none of its prestige for gallant
Captain E. D. Whitaker,
The gallant and redoubtable commander of Company K, was
of medium size and dressed like a gentleman. He lived like
one, too — whenever he struck a "square meal" or a "bed of
goose hair." Witty and shrewd, Chesterfieldian in manner
and sufficiently " cheeky," he usually had better luck than
his comrades in securing substantials and luxuries, which
were exceedingly scarce in the Confederacy. There are
many humorous stories that could be told of Captain
" Shuck " Whitaker, but one of the best is that related
by Mrs. Emily Stout, of Worthville, Ky., but who
during the war lived in Virginia. Captain " Shuck," accom-
panied by four soldiers, called on her and wanted to buy
some turkeys. She told him she had already given away a
number of turkeys and that she had only five left, which she
wished to keep. The captain then in his well-known elo-
quent, persuasive tones made the following pathetic appeal :
" My dear good woman, I know you have sons in the army,
and I am sure they, too, are hungry. If you will let me have
the turkeys it will be like bread cast upon the waters, and
the good Lord will surely cause some one to feed your poor
hungry boys. Now, my good woman, I am an honest Chris-
tian man, and but for that fact might have stolen your
turkeys. Madam, they are all now sitting on the fence
behind the barn, and if you will spare me one you may be
the instrument in the hands of God that will save one poor
Christian soldier from starvation." The lady, unable to
resist this pathetic plea, said, " Well, I will go with you
and let you have one." But, sad to say, there were no
turkeys sitting on the fence. While the Christian-like cap-
tain monopolized the attention of " my good woman " his
four soldiers had " skipped " with the five turkeys.
252 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Some of the "Boys."
" Bold they could speak and fairly ride ;
I warrant them, soldiers tried."
Charles J. Bower
WAS an educated, gentlemanly young soldier, belong-
ing to Company F, Fourth Kentucky His record
is exceptionally honorable. Always ready for duty he never
missed a fight. At Mt. Sterling he took deliberate aim at a
Federal, shooting him dead. Gallant Guy Flusser was killed
by his side.
While operating with Longstreet in the vicinity of Beans
Station young Bower was with a detachment that captured a
train of wagons at night north of Clinch Mountain, on the
road from Cumberland Gap to Beans Station. The wagons
were loaded with sugar, coffee and other commissary stores,
en route to Burnside's army corps. Bower and James Spencer
brought off one of the wagons and distributed the contents
among their comrades instead of turning them into the com-
missary department. Bower, being a lawyer and politician,
claimed that he had first lien on the goods, and that to the
victor belonged the spoils.
Charley Bower and his faithful war equine, "Old Bess,"
were generally on hand when " tough " and dangerous
service was to be performed. They were never with the
"lame squad" but once — when Bower marched with the
" foot cavalry " from Virginia to Mt. Sterling, during the first
days of Morgan's last raid into Kentucky. Although he had
been reared in affluence young Bower philosophically and
stoically submitted to the hardships of a Confederate cavalry-
man's life. His fine education, natural intelligence and
varied accomplishments eminently fitted him for some staff
duty of ease, rank and pleasure, but he sought no such position,
being content to serve the Confederacy in the humble capac-
ity of private soldier. He was fitted to adorn any station.
" For of his clan, in hall and bower,
Young Charley Bower was held the flower."
Hl'MPHREY MARSHALL, JR.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 253
Sometimes called " H." and sometimes " Ham," was a Louis-
ville youth, who joined Company E, Fourth Kentucky, in
1863. Ham Hulcee was a rare boy, "smart," brave to rash-
ness, cynical, indifferent to the luxuries of life, although he
had been accustomed to them, careless in dress, and withal
■one of the very best soldiers in the Confederacy. The whole
Federal army could not have scared him. He was the son
of Dr. H. Hulcee, a prominent physician of Louisville, and
when Lee had furled the flag at Appomattox young Hulcee
was averse to surrender and advocated a protraction of the
struggle, even should it become necessary to adopt a guer-
rilla mode of warfare. He was one of the " last-ditch" sort
of fellows, and did not lay down his arms until he saw that if
the war was to go on he would have to fight it alone.
Thomas J. McElrath
Was a college-bred youth, a Scotchman, the best classical
scholar in the Fourth Kentucky. Impervious to fear he was
ever ready for the fray and never shirked a soldier's duty.
The boys delighted to gather around the bivouac fire to hear
him read some " classic work of ancient story," or listen to
his eloquent recital of legendary lore. He was captured at
Mt. Sterling on Morgan's last raid, and in the loathsome
prison at Rock Island he enlivened many a weary hour by
reading aloud to his fellow-prisoners selections of modern and
Humphrey Marshall, Jr.
In personal appearance young Humphrey Marshall was a
" chip off the old block." Not more than seventeen years
old, he was very large and fleshy, almost the picture of his
father, the general. He seemed to be a free rover, going
whither he pleased and coming when it suited his whim. He
accompanied us on Morgan's last raid into Kentucky, and
walked almost the entire "round trip." When asked why
he did not get a horse he would nonchalantly reply, "Oh,
plenty of time ; I'll get one after a while ; " but he seemed
254 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
content to walk along the turnpikes rather than make an
effort to obtain a horse, which could easily be secured by-
leaving the highway a few minutes. However, while we
were skirting the suburbs of Lexington he made a dash into
the city and picked up a forlorn-looking Rosinante, but run-
ing upon a squad of Dutch cavalry he was very nearly
captured, as he would hold on to the worthless old " raw
bones" while he fought off the Dutch single-handed. Riding
bareback he rejoined the column. His experience must have
been severe, as he wore scant clothing, his own back being
nearly as bare as that of his razor-back war horse. He was
devoid of fear and seemed to care neither for the comforts nor
luxuries of life. At Mt. Sterling, under the hottest kind of
fire, the enemy in the houses, he and a number of com-
rades had a position behind a stone wall, where they
were somewhat safe so long as they lay on the ground, but
in danger of instant death the moment they showed any part
of their bodies above the wall. Young Humphrey, however,
persisted in standing up, coolly endeavoring to " draw a bead
on a 'Yank.'" His comrades called to him, "Lie down,
Humphrey ! You'll be killed if you stand there ! " His
reply was, " By G — d, I can't see anything lying down
there!" He escaped unscratched, although men fell all
around him like grain before the sickle. He was a brainy
youth and a most entertaining companion. I was with him
a great deal on the Kentucky trip and at other times, and I
often recall his wit, drolleries and enjoyable comradeship.
Upon our arrival in Virginia, after the hegira from Cynthi-
ana, I for a time had young Marshall and Tommy Bayless
for messmates. Rations were scarce, and one morning hav-
ing nothing but a chunk of blue beef, about enough for one
soldier, and a small quantity of hard bread, we cooked the
meat in an old pan, adding a little water, hoping to make an
apology for gravy. Bayless was the first to dip a piece of
the adamantine bread into the " sop," but he instantly threw
it down and turned his head. Surprised, I asked him what
was the matter. He said a big black spider had been cooked
with the meat. Upon examination I discovered the dis-
membered spider floating in the gravy. I also turned away.
. 1. ■
D. BEAINAKD BAVLESS.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 255
Young Humphrey, noticing our movements, queried,
"What's the matter with you fellows ? " We informed him
about the spider. " Humph ! " exclaimed he, " what of
that?" We said it turned our stomachs, whereupon he
began to eat the disgusting compound, saying, " Boys, one
side of my stomach is just as good as the other — let her
turn." He soon left us, going to Richmond to read law in
his father's office. He may have had further experience in
the army, in his peculiar way, but I never saw him again.
D. Brainard Bayless.
This youth, handsome, dashing and brilliant, readily
became one of the pets of the brigade. A native of Coving-
ton, Ky., apparently not more than sixteen years of age,
small, always neatly attired, a perfect little gentleman, he
first came to the brigade as a member of " the little battery"
The first time I ever saw the battery in action was at Tel-
fords Station, where it came promptly upon the field when
the engagement began, and at the first fire my attention was
attracted to the little boy, Bayless, who was rapidly working
one of the guns, and at each discharge of the diminutive can-
non he would wave his hat, jump into the air and cheer.
After leaving the battery he filled various ' ' preferred ' ' posi-
tions, and being a prime favorite of Adjutant-General
Guerrant he was installed into that officer's office as clerk
and to perform general staff duty — the same position held by
myself. L,ater, when General Breckinridge was in command,
his younger brother, Tommy Bayless, joined us, and for a
long time was my bedfellow and most intimate companion.
Brainard Bayless was captured at Mt. Sterling, June, 1864,
during Morgan's raid, but escaped from prison, and in the
following September rejoined the command, remaining with it
until the termination of the war.
Wm. J. Bohon.
One of the handsomest, most intelligent and popular youths
of the Fourth Kentucky was Billy Bohon, a native of Har-
rodsburg, where he had been well educated and a clerk in a
256 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
dry goods store. A gallant soldier, fastidious in dress, alway
managing to have good clothes and knowing how to wea
them with the best effect, he was the best dressed boy in th
regiment. He had been reared in refined society, had rea<
extensively and could readily quote from standard poets-
Pope being his favorite. Notwithstanding his fastidiousnes
in language and dress the most uncouth and illiterate soldie
was his firm friend. He was captured at Mt. Sterling, an
remained a prisoner, I think, until the close of the war. H
belonged to Barrett's company.
Thomas P. Bashaw.
Another elegant and accomplished youth, Tom Bashaw
came to the Fourth Kentucky, Company F, in company wit'
Bohon, and like him immediately became exceedingly pot.
ular with officers and men. Bashaw was not only an affabl
gentleman ; he was highly educated, a profound thinker,
charming conversationalist and a fine singer. The boy
delighted to gather about his camp-fire and listen to his elc
quent discourses and hear him sing the numerous war songs
such as "Maryland, My Maryland," "The Bonnie Blu
Flag," etc. He was rather above medium height, well pre
portioned and had black hair and eyes, a full, benignant face
a tender, inviting expression about the mouth, a tendency t
melancholy, and was rather easily discouraged, which w
were inclined to attribute to delicate health. Tom Bastm
was one of that rare type of men of whom no one ever had a:
inclination to speak disrespectfully. Conscientious, he di<
his full duty as a soldier. After the war he became a bril!
iant lawyer, and going to Missouri he very nearly defeatei
General Marmaduke in the State Democratic Convention fo
Wm. H. Bradley
Was probably the best drilled young soldier in the Fourth Ken
tucky when it was first organized. For some years previou
to the war he had been a member of a superb military compan 1
in Louisville, and was therefore well up in tactics before h
enlisted in the Confederate army. He had also been drill
WILL L. CRAEB.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 257
master of a company of the Kentucky State Guard. As a
soldier he was one of the best. His modesty and unassuming
manner kept him in the ranks, while others of less merit and
ability became somewhat prominent officers. He was espe-
cially efficient as a leader of scouts. His military acumen
and general intelligence were recognized by his officers, who
frequently sent him on special service.
It was generally thought that Burbridge's (or Burnside's)
cold-blooded general order No. 38 was only applicable to
Confederates captured in Kentucky or within Federal lines.
That supposition is disproved by the fact that Andy Garnett
and Bill Tige, of Scott's company, were captured near Bean
Station, Tenn., and condemned by Burbridge to be shot.
Morgan's raid made it necessary to remove the prisoners from
Lexington, and the sentence for some reason was commuted
to imprisonment. Bradley, who was captured on Morgan's
raid, was surprised to find Garnett and Tige in prison, and
from them he learned of their narrow escape from being shot
under order "38."
Peter A. Mai^oy
Was a notable young Irishman of Company E, Fourth Ken-
tucky. Possessing great force of character he had almost
unaided acquired a good common school education, which he
supplemented by the judicious reading of history, biography,
belles lettres, etc. His general information and ready Irish
wit made him a most agreeable comrade. At Rheatown he
was shot through both hips and left on the field, it being sup-
posed that he was dead. About two months later a
letter was received from him, announcing that he still lived
and requesting that he be sent for and taken to the command.
There was general rejoicing that the gallant young Irish
soldier was not dead. However he was a cripple for the rest
of his life. The Federals had treated him well, and when
they left Rheatown they appointed a soldier to remain with
him. Lieutenant Sennett Duncan went to him and conveyed
him to Rogersville, where for a time he was left with friends.
He was assigned to duty in the adjutant-general's office, where
his good penmanship and intelligence made him a valued
258 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
Heroism oe Henry Sanders.
Three soldiers whose names should be written in gold
were Lieutenant Robert Alexander, Henry Sanders and
Thomas Osborne of the Fourth Kentucky .
On the morning of the battle of Blue Springs Captain
Tom Barrett was in command of the pickets — a squadron
composed of his own and Scott's companies. Colonel Giltner
ordered him to move with his pickets, or scouts, to Bulls
Gap for the purpose of ascertaining whether the enemy was
in possession of the gap. Barrett was cautioned, however,
not to enter the pass under any consideration whatever.
The captain proceeded without seeing or hearing of any
enemy, and when within three hundred yards of the gap
came to a halt. Not knowing positively from information
he had obtained whether or not an enemy occupied the pass
he directed Lieutenant Alexander, of Scott's company, to
take two men and make a closer reconnoissance. Upon
Alexander's call for volunteers Henry Sanders and Tom
Osborne promptly signified their willingness to accompany
him. The three daring soldiers going beyond their orders
crept to a point whence they could look down into the gap.
The enemy, in ambush, closed in on their rear, cutting off
retreat. They dashed through the gap, running the gauntlet
between two lines of an unseen foe. Alexander received a
painful wound in the calf of his leg, his horse was seriously
shot, and Osborne was wounded in the heel. Sanders and
his horse remained uninjured. Having passed through the
gap they found themselves confronted by a whole division of
cavalry, drawn up in line of battle. Wheeling to the right
they dashed along the side of the mountain, the long line of
Federals firing upon them. Alexander's horse went down.
It was then that gallant Henry Sanders, or "Black Hawk,"
as he was familiarly called, performed an act of heroism and
self-sacrifice that entitles his name to be written in letters of
living light on the scroll of fame.
Dismounting under a galling fire he placed the disabled
lieutenant upon his horse and took to the woods on foot. The
brave trio managed to escape over the mountain, rejoining
the command without further adventure.
!• H. JJOK.MAX.
KENTUCKY CA V ALTERS IN DIXIE. 259
"Digby" and "Major" Jenkins.
These two youths were brothers, their proper names being
Win. L,. and Frederick R. Jenkins. They had left a home of
wealth and luxury to enter upon the hard and dangerous
career of " soldiers in gray." I had never known them until
we met as soldiers in the Fourth Kentucky, they belonging to
Company E. From the first acquaintance I entertained a
fraternal feeling for the two young brothers — brave, dashing
and generous. Poor "Major" gave up his gallant young
life — shot from his horse near Wytheville, Va., in the last
engagement his regiment had in the closing days of the war,
and he left no bolder heart behind.
" We gave him, for a soldier meet,
A soldier's cloak for winding sheet."
" Back from his beautiful blue-veined brow
Brush all the wandering waves of gold ;
Cross his hands on his bosom now ;
Somebody's darling is still and cold."
Bob Walden, the handsomest boy I ever saw, petted by a
thousand cavaliers, left his home in Owen County, Ky., when
probably not more than fourteen years old, to follow the
plume of General John H. Morgan. When that chieftain
made his famous raid through Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio
" L,ittle Bob" daringly made his escape from imminent
capture by swimming his horse across the Ohio River at
Buffington Island. After many adventures he reached Gilt-
ner's brigade in Tennessee, and was assigned to duty at
headquarters as a " courier boy." Nearly always riding at
the head of the column he was gay and happy, cheerily sing-
ing some song like the following :
" The boy stood on the burning deck
Eating peanuts by the peck ;
His father called, he would not go,
Because he loved the peanuts so."
He was rashly brave, seemingly never to realize the dan-
gers to which he was constantly exposing himself. His
260 KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE.
gallant career was brief. Standing alone upon the breast-
works at Bulls Gap, Tenn., waving bis hat and taunting the
enemy — a conspicuous target for a thousand rifles — a ball
struck him in the forehead, killing him instantly. Poor
Bob ! So young, so bright. How we loved that precious
boy — the youngest of our clan ! The bloom of summer was
on his fair cheek ; there was gayety in his heart ; a cheery,
perennial smile hovered about his boyish face, which was
round and smooth, his complexion being the envy of the
" Tenderly bury the fair young dead,
Pausing to drop on his grave a tear ;
Carve on the wooden slab at his head
' Somebody's darling slumbers here.' "
As the engraving indicates this young soldier was a frank,,
generous boy, genial and handsome — as gallant a lad as ever
faced a foe. Originally he belonged to Company F, Fourth
Kentucky Cavalry, but when Captain Shuck Whitaker's
company was organized he was transferred to Company K.
Gentlemanly and intelligent he was an ideal soldier of the
J. H. Dorman.
This soldier was "a high private in front ranks" — edu-
cated, intellectual and known as " Gentleman Dorman." He
was a member of Alexander's company, always ready for
duty — a veteran of forty-two engagements.
Since the war Harvey Dorman has been a successful law-
yer, four years county judge of Owen County and has
served a term in the State Senate. While serving in the
latter capacity his former comrade in the army and associate
in the Senate, the Hon. Thomas J McElrath, paid him the
following just tribute :
" But I do know, and from an acquaintance of three years,
extending over a period which called out every phase of a
man's character, I am warranted in saying that Harvey Dor-
man is a gentleman like the gallant Bayard, ' without fear
1 r ,*
\V. LLEWELLYN M'CAXX.
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE. 261
and without reproach ; ' that in the old Fourth Kentucky-
there was no more gallant soldier, no man of stricter integ-
rity and purer morals than he."
Wounded at Laurel Gap, Va., was one of the coolest soldiers
under fire in the Fourth Kentucky. Notably quiet and of
amiable temperament he calmly did a soldier's duty.
I am admonished that if I continue to introduce cavaliers
worthy of laudation this book will grow beyond all reasonable
size, and I must therefore content myself by assuring the
reader that the gallant " boys " whom I have sketched are
merely " ensamples " of those whose names are found on
muster rolls, recorded on preceding pages.
I close this chapter by quoting from General Bragg's
exquisite tribute to the private soldier of the Confederacy :
" Without the incentive or the motive which controls the
officer who hopes to live in history, without the hope of
reward, actuated only by a sense of duty and patriotism, he
has in this great contest justly judged that the cause was his
own, and gone into it with a determination to conquer or
die, to be free or not to be at all. No encomium is too
high, no honor too great for such a soldier. However much
of credit and glory may be given, and probably justly given,
to the leaders in the struggle, history will yet award the main
honor where it is due — to the private soldier, who without
hope of reward and with no other incentive than a con-
scientiousness of rectitude has encountered all the hardships
and has suffered all the privations. Well has it been said,
' The first monument our Confederacy raises should be a
lofty shaft, pure and spotless, bearing this inscription : ' To
the unknown and unrecorded dead. ' "
262 KENTUCKY CA V ALTERS IN DIXIE.
The Last Days — The Homeward March — The Surrender to
General Hobson at Mt. Sterling.
" Furl that banner ; true, 'tis gory,
Yet 'tis wreathed around with glory,
And 'twill live in song and story
Though its folds are in the dust ;
For its fame on brightest pages,
Penned by poets and by sages,
Shall go sounding down the ages.
Furl its folds though now we must."
AFTER the battle of Marion the brigade remained com-
paratively inactive until early in the spring of 1865?
when it defeated and stampeded a raiding cavalry force near
Wytheville. In this engagement, our last, " Major " Jenkins
From Wytheville the command marched toward Lynch-
burg and Appomattox, but when we had arrived at
Christiansburg we received the intelligence that the Army of
Northern Virginia had succumbed to the inevitable and laid
down its arms — that General Lee had surrendered his little
army, starved and exhausted, to General Grant. With the
surrender of Lee's veterans the majority of our soldiers real-
ized that the end had come ; that
" The neighboring troops, the flashing blade,
The trumpet's stirring blast,
The charge, the dreadful cannonade,
The din and shout were past."
All was gloom. I shall not attempt to describe the
pathetic scenes. The men could scarcely decide as to the
best course to pursue. General Basil Duke and others were
loath to surrender. Many suggested an attempt to join
General Joseph E. Johnston's army. Others determined to
make their way to the Trans-Mississippi department, and
thence to Mexico or South America. Many declared that
they would never again live under the United States govern-
COXI KDERATE FLAT. — FURLED.
KENTUCKY CA VALIERS IN DIXIE. 265
merit ; nearly all expected bad treatment and persecution by
the dominant party controlling the Federal government.
Colonel Giltner, with tears in his eyes, addressed the
assemblage of troopers, sitting upon their horses. He
recapitulated their daring and faithfulness as soldiers and the
many sacrifices they had made in the long, hard struggle
against a power that commanded overwhelming numbers and
unlimited resources. He said that the future appeared
cheerless and forbidding, and that the thought of surrender
was most harrowing to his soul, and yet he thought the very
best thing that could be done would be for the command to
retain its organization, march to Kentucky and there surren-
der. Emphasizing the fact that without L,ee and the Army
of Northern Virginia further conflict would be hopeless, he
said that any prolongation of the struggle would result in
useless suffering and effusion of blood. The colonel's voice
faltered when he spoke of the sundering of the ties that for
nearly three years had bound officers and men together in
close comradeship. All eyes were dim; all voices were
hushed. Men could not trust themselves to speak. No
funeral scene was ever more solemn.
The colonel merely sought to advise the men ; he made no
attempt to dictate to them nor to control them. As for him-
self he intended to march to Kentucky ; all who chose to do
so could follow him ; the others were at liberty to go whither
they pleased. A number of the men, I do not know how many,
arrayed themselves under the unfurled red battle flag of
General Duke and followed that gallant chieftain southward.
The majority of the command took Colonel Giltner's advice
and turned their faces toward Kentucky. Having bidden the
followers of General Duke a sad farewell we started upon the
long and dreary homeward march.
'' No cymbal clashed, no clarion rang,
Still were the pipe and drum ;
Save heavy tread and armor's clang,
The sullen march was dumb."
My chums on this march were Neville Bullitt and his
cousin, Henry Bullitt, of Louisville.
264 KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IN DIXIE.
They were members of Company C, Second Kentucky
Cavalry, General Duke's old regiment, and had been captured
when on Morgan's raid north of the Ohio River. They had
recently been exchanged, and when they joined the command
in Virginia the three of us became messmates and close
friends. They were exceptionally well educated, gentle-
manly youths, with whom it was an honor to associate.
Henry Bullitt was a brother of the Hon. Joshua F. Bullitt,
formerly one of the judges of the Kentucky Court of
At Hazel Green, Ky., probably forty miles from Mt. Ster-
ling, we halted and sent forward a flag of truce to ascertain
from General Hobson, in command at Mt. Sterling, the terms
upon which we would be permitted to surrender. "When our
flag returned it was accompanied by a gentlemanly young
artillery officer and a small escort, who bore a courteous
communication from General Hobson, in which he sug-
gested that we should march to Mt. Sterling, where we
should be permitted to surrender upon the same terms, sub-
stantially, as had been granted to General Lee at Appomattox.
Immediately acting upon General Hobson's generous sug-
gestion we marched to Mt. Sterling, where we surrendered
and were paroled — May 10, 1865.
Our surrender to General Hobson was another illustration
of the vicissitudes of war. Only one year before the general
had surrendered his brigade to General Morgan at Cynthiana.
General Hobson treated us with delicate consideration,
and did all that was in his power, under the circumstances,
for our comfort and pleasure.
Personally I was extremely fortunate. Judge Belvard J.
Peters, who lived in the suburbs of Mt. Sterling, had been
an associate with Judge Bullitt on the bench of the Court
of Appeals. He came into the encampment and invited
the Bullitt boys and myself to make his house our home
during our stay in that vicinity — an invitation which we
thankfully accepted. The judge and his good wife gave us
royal entertainment at their elegant home, and upon our
departure, knowing that we had no money except worthless
Confederate scrip, the generous judge made us accept of a
KENTUCKY CAVALIERS IX DIXIE.
gift of nearly one hundred dollars, current coin of the realm,
that we might not be pecuniarily embarrassed while on the
way to our homes.
From Mt. Sterling we went to Paris, where Henry Bullitt
had a sweetheart, and remained a week ; thence we went to
L,ouisville, and then — our soldier days had ended.
" Furl that banner, softly, slowly.
Treat it gently — it is holy —
For it droops above the dead ;
Touch it not; unfold it never ;
Let it droop there — furled forever."
A — The Stars and Bars.
B— The Battle Flag.
C— The Camp Flag-.
D — Last Flag of the Confederacy.
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